The Parasitic Plant Connection


Translations of Parasitic Plant Literature


The papers listed on this page have been translated from their original language into English. For the most part, these represent older literature that had not previously been available in electronic form. Briefly, this is the process that was used to prepare the translations:

  1. The original text was scanned (using a flatbed scanner) and the pages saved as TIFF files at 300 dpi.
  2. The files (individual pages) were modified using Adobe PhotoShop (adjust contrast/brightness, remove imperfections, align, etc.).
  3. The TIFF files were rendered as text and figures using optical character recognition software. The program I use is ReadIris Pro. This allows me to select text, tables, and graphics and save the file in RTF (Rich Text Format) format. This program also accommodates recognition of many languages, thus umlauts, accent marks, etc. are properly interpreted.
  4. The RTF file is opened in MSWord and edited. The amount of further editing depends upon the quality of the orignal scan. The original document is consulted and the text is edited line by line.
  5. The foreign language text is then translated to English. Because I am not an expert in German, French,  Spanish, etc., I use web translation utilities.  If the text is short, it can be pasted into the translation window on Google Language Tools.  For longer text, I save the MSWord file as a web page (html), temporarily make that page available on the internet, and then use the Google Translate Web (iTools) web site. You simply paste in the (temporary) URL, select the language you want for the translation, and then hit the Translate button.  A window is presented that has your entire site translated.  The text is copied and then pasted into MSWord for further editing.  An example of this method is the Adansonia paper by Malécot et al. (2003) below.
  6. Because botany is full of jargon no matter what the language, there are a number of helpful web dictionaries that help with these scientific words. I should also mention the invaluable resource Elsevier's Dictionary of Botany II. General Terms (Macura 1982) which is a tremendous help with French, German and Russian botanical terms. The text generated by Google is sometimes quite good and other times far off from the original meaning. It is at this stage where most of the work takes place - checking various phrases, etc.
  7. In some cases I consulted colleagues who are fluent in the foreign language and who can critically check the translation. For the Russian translation, I have used OCR to convert the scan to Cyrillic characters, but I have not perfected working with this alphabet and automated translation utilities. For this reason, I have Alexey Shipunov to thank for doing the translation of the Teryokhin (1975) manuscript.
  8. Once I have the translated text in good order, final assembly of the document involves formatting and inserting figures. The MSWord document is printed as a pdf file and its size is then reduced in Adobe Acrobat.

The translations are obviously imperfect, but in most cases it is clear enough to grasp the general meaning. After doing a number of these, I can appreciate how bridging the communication gap is a real challenge! The result is never perfect because some concepts simply do not translate from one language to another. Maybe some of you who read these translations and are fluent in both languages can suggest improvements. I welcome your input!


Balanophoraceae

Eichler, A.W. 1867. Sur la structure femelle de quelques Balanophoracées. Pp. 137-155 in: Fournier, E., (ed), Actes du congrès international de botanique tenu à Paris en août 1867. Germer Baillière, Paris. p 137-155. Original French pdf HERE (274 kb) or English HERE (299 kb).

Fagerlind, F. 1945. Blüte und Blütenstand der Gattung Balanophora. Botaniska Notiser 45: 330-350. Original German pdf HERE (396 kb) or English HERE (408 kb).

Halle, N. 1978. Illustration de deux rares Balanophoracees d'Afrique Equatoriale appartenant aux genres Chlamydophytum Mildbr. et Balanophora Forst. Adansonia 17(3): 249 - 261.  Original French HERE (2.7 mb) or English HERE (2.7 mb).

Harms, H. 1935. Balanophoraceae. 5. Chlamydophytum. Page 316 in A. Engler and K. Prantl, eds. Die Natürlichen Planzenfamilien. Wilhelm Engelman, Leipzig. Original German and English translation HERE (111 kb).

Mangenot G, Mangenot S. 1968. Sur la présence de leucoplastes chez les végétaux vasculaires mycotrophes ou parasites. Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences Paris (Série D - Sciences naturelles) 267D:1193-1195. Original French HERE (0.9 mb) or English HERE (0.9 mb).

Weber HC, Sunaryo. 1990. Kolbenträgerschmarotzer (Balanophoraceae: Extreme Blütenpflanzen mit pilzlichem Charakter. Biologische Rundschau 28: 83-86. Original German pdf HERE (238 kb) or English HERE (274 kb).

Cynomoriaceae

Juel, O. 1910. Cynomorium und Hippuris. Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 4: 151-159. Original German pdf HERE (260 kb) or English HERE (264 kb).

Teryokhin, E., Z. Nikiticheva, and M. Yakovlev. 1975. Development of the seed, endosperm and embryo of Cynomorium songaricum Rupr. (Cynomoriaceae). Bot. Zhurn. 60: 1603-1613. Original Russian pdf HERE (2.3 mb) or English HERE (840 kb).

Weddell, H. A. 1860. Memoire sur le Cynomorium coccineum, parasite de l'ordre des Balanophorées. Archives du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle 10: 269-308. Original French pdf HERE (10.5 mb) or English HERE (10.5 mb).

Cytinaceae

Alvarado-Cárdenas LO. 2009. Systemática del género Bdallophytum (Cytinaceae) [Systematics of the genus Bdallophytum (Cytinaceae)]. Acta Botanica Mexicana 87: 1-21. Original Spanish HERE (524 kb) and English translation HERE (623 kb).

Fernández-Alonso J, Cuadros-Villalobos H  (2012)  Sanguisuga, un género nuevo neotropical de Cytinaceae y una conexión sudamericana en la familia. Caldasia 34:291-308. Original Spanish HERE (684 kb) and English translation HERE (991 kb).

Harms, H. 1935. Rafflesiaceae, Tribe IV. Cytineae. Pages 276-281 in A. Engler and H. Harms, eds. Die Natürlichen Planzenfamilien. Wilhelm Engelman, Leipzig. Original German pdf HERE (536 kb) and English translation HERE (5 kb).

Heinricher, E. 1933. Zur Frage der Artbildung bei Cytinus hypocistis nebst anderen Bemerkungen. Pages 48-53 in Hayata B, ed. Icones Plantarum Formosanarum III.  Original German pdf HERE (78 kb) and English translation HERE (98 kb).

Jumelle H, Perrier de la Bathie H. 1915. Nouvelles notes biologiques sur flore malgache. Annales de la Faculté des Sciences de Marseille 23 (2): 23-51.
 Original French pdf HERE (369 kb) and English translation HERE (369 kb).

Watanabe, K. 1936. Über eine neue Gattung der Cytinaceae. Botanical Magazine Tokyo 50: 676-681. Original German pdf HERE (360 kb) and English translation HERE (448 kb).

SANTALALES - using the new classification of families (see Nickrent et al. 2010)

Santalales

Reif de Paula, C. H. 2004. Contribuição à Taxonomia das Famílias Eremolepidaceae, Loranthaceae e Viscaceae no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Ph.D. Dissertation. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Fernando Ferrari 75, Botafogo, CEP 22231-040. 57 pages + 55 plates.Original in Portuguese, translated to English by D. L. Nickrent:  Contribution to the Taxonomy of Eremolepidaceae, Loranthaceae and Viscaceae from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The English version of this thesis is available as a pdf file (4.8 MB) HERE.

Stauffer HU. 1961. Beiträge zum Blütendiagramm der Santalales. Verhandlungen der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft 141: 123-125. Original German pdf HERE (53 kb) and English translation HERE (57 kb).

Strombosiaceae

Michaux M. 1966. Contribution à l'étude des Olacacées d'Afrique tropicale. Diogoa, pages 268-269 (total 157-290) in Schnell R, Grout de Beaufort F, Bernhard F, Michaud M, eds. Mémoires de l'institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire, Mélanges Botaniques, vol. 75. Dakar, Sengal: Musée de Institut Fondamental d'Afrique (IFAN). Original French pdf HERE (94 kb) and English translation HERE (106 kb).

Michaux M. 1966. Contribution à l'étude des Olacacées d'Afrique tropicale. Strombosiopsis, pages 262-264 (total 157-290) in Schnell R, Grout de Beaufort F, Bernhard F, Michaud M, eds. Mémoires de l'institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire, Mélanges Botaniques, vol. 75. Dakar, Sengal: Musée de Institut Fondamental d'Afrique (IFAN). Original French pdf HERE (119 kb) and English translation HERE (70 kb).

Octoknemaceae

Louis, J., and J. Leonard. 1948. Octoknemaceae. Pages 288-293. Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi. Spermatophytes, Bruxelles. The paper describes both Octoknema (Olacaceae) and Okoubaka (Santalaceae). Original French pdf HERE (548 kb) and English translation HERE (544 kb).

Aptandraceae

Malécot V, Schatz GE, Bosser J. 2003. Révision synoptique du genre Phanerodiscus Cavaco (Olacaceae) à Madagascar. Adansonia 25: 119-128. Original French pdf HERE (950 kb) and English translation HERE (504 kb).

Loranthaceae

Basáñez, M. J. C. H. O. Rivera, F. R. Farí­as, and J. A.Vázquez-García 2005. Cladocolea oligantha (Loranthaceae) un nuevo registro para veracruz, México, y datos generales sobre este taxón. Polibotánica 20: 1-15. Original Spanish HERE (209 kb) and English translation HERE (934 kb).

Danser B. H. 1935. A revision of the Philippine Loranthaceae. Philip. Jour. Sci. 58: 1-149. This is actually not a translation but a conversion of the original document (pdf, > 20 mb) via OCR to text (MSWord) and then back to pdf.  Given that OCR was used, there are undoubtedly errors in this document, particularly in the Latin descriptions and list of herbarium numbers where I did not have the energy to do thorough editing.  The pagination here is not the same as the original document. Manuscript available HERE (930 kb).

Robles A, Raz L, Marquínez X. 2016. Anatomía Floral de Peristethium leptostachyum (Loranthaceae). Revista de Biologia Tropical 64:357-368. Original Spanish HERE (668 kb) and English translation HERE (573 kb). The pagination for the English version is not the same as the original.

Misodendraceae

Skottsberg, C. 1935. Myzodendraceae. Pages 92-97 in A. Engler and K. Prantl, eds. Die Natürlichen Planzenfamilien. Wilhelm Engelman, Leipzig. Original German pdf HERE (680 kb) and English translation HERE (704 kb).

Schoepfiaceae

Skottsberg, C. 1940. Notas sobre el genero Arjona. Revista Universidad (Santiago) 25: 103-108. Original Spanish HERE (344 kb) and English translation HERE (365 kb).

Sleumer H. O. 1935. Olacaceae. Schoepfioideae, pages 30-31 (total 5-32) in Engler A, Harms H, eds. Die Natürlichen Planzenfamilien, vol. Edition 2, Part 16b. Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelman. Original German pdf HERE (217 kb) and English translation HERE (213 kb).

Tieghem, P. van. 1896. Sur les phanérogames à ovule sans nucelle, formant le groupe des innucellées ou santalinées. Bulletin de la Sociéte Botanique de France 43: 543-577. [pages 548-554 here, on Arjonaceae and Schoepfiaceae]. Original French pdf HERE (70 kb) and English translation HERE (70 kb).

Thesiaceae

Modilewski, I. 1928. Die Embryologische Entwicklung von Thesium intermedium. Bull. Jard. Bot. de Kieff 7: 65-70. Original German HERE (2.2 mb) and English translation HERE (2.2 mb). 

Santos Guerra, Arnoldo. 1993. Kunkeliella retamoides Santos, sp. nova (Santalaceae, sect. Amphorogyne Staufer), nueva especie de la flora Canaria. Anales Jardín Botánico de Madrid 51(1): 145-146. Spanish and English translation HERE (82 kb).

Stauffer, H. U. 1961. Santalales-Studien VI. Afrikanische Santalaceae II. Osyridicarpos. Viertelj. Schr. Naturf. Ges. Zurich 106: 400-406. Original German pdf HERE (320 kb) and English HERE (340 kb).

Cervantesiaceae

Halle, N. 1987. Okoubaka Pellegrin et Normand est vraiment un genre de Santalaceae. Bull. Mus. Nation. Hist. Nat., B (=Adansonia), 9: 355-363. Original French pdf HERE (1.9 mb) and English translation HERE (1.8 mb).

Leonard, J., and G. Troupin. 1950. Observation sur le genre Okoubaka Pellegr. et Normand (Octoknemaceae). Bull. Bot. L'Etat Brux. 20: 11-14. Original French pdf HERE (140 kb) and English HERE (160 kb).

Louis, J., and J. Leonard. 1948. Octoknemaceae. Pages 288-293. Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi. Spermatophytes, Bruxelles. The paper describes both Octoknema (Olacaceae) and Okoubaka (Santalaceae). Original French pdf HERE (548 kb) and English translation HERE (544 kb).

Stauffer, H. U. 1957. Santalales-Studien I. Zur Stellung der Gattung Okoubaka Pellegrin et Normand. Ber. Schweiz. Bot. Ges. 67:422-427. Original German pdf HERE (124 kb) and English HERE (148 kb).

Stauffer, H. U. 1961. Santalales-Studien VII. Sudamerikansche Santalaceae I. Acanthosyris, Cervantesia und Jodina. Viertelj. Schr. Naturf. Ges. Zurich 106: 406-412. Original German pdf HERE (108 kb) and English HERE (320 kb).

Stauffer, H. U. and H. Hurlimann. 1957. Santalales-Studien III. Amphorogyne, eine weitere Santalaceen-Gattung aus Neukaledonien. Viertelj. Schr. Naturf. Ges. Zurich 102:337-349. Original German pdf HERE (72 kb, text only, no photos) and English HERE (2.7 mb, with photos, but scanned from a photocopy, so poor quality).

Santalaceae sensu stricto and sensu lato (including "Eremolepidaceae")

Engler, A., and K. Krause. 1935. Loranthaceae. Pages 98-203 in A. Engler and K. Prantl, eds. Die Natürlichen Planzenfamilien. Engelmann, W., Leipzig. Translation of Viscoideae-Eremolepideae portion only (pages 182-184). Original German pdf HERE (256 kb) and English HERE (252 kb).

Pilger, R. 1935. Santalaceae. Pages 52-91 in A. Engler and K. Prantl, eds. Die Natürlichen Pflanzen Familien. Engelmann, W., Leipzig. Original German pdf HERE (2.5 mb) and English HERE (2.5 mb).

Stauffer, H. U. 1959. Santalales-Studien IV. Revisio Anthobolearum. Mitt. Bot. Mus. Univ. Zurich 213:1-260. [just the portion dealing with Omphacomeria]. Original German pdf HERE (48 kb) and English HERE (56 kb).

Stauffer HU. 1961. Santalales-Studien V. Afrikanische Santalaceae I. Osyris, Colpoon und Rhoiacarpos. Vierteljahrsschrift der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Zurich 106:387-400. Original German pdf HERE (573 kb) and English HERE (557 kb).

Stauffer, H.U. 1963. Gestaltwandel bei Blütenständen von Dicotyledonen. Botanishe Jahrbücher 82:216-251. Original German HERE (1.1 mb). Note that this document was produced by OCR from a photocopy of the original journal article. Some conversion errors may still exist. For this and the English translation, the illustrations were all placed together at the end of the document and the legends were made more specific (full scientific names given). There are apparently 4 supplemental figures that are not included here. Job Kuijt is gratefully acknowledged for helping with the translation. English HERE (1.1 mb).

Amphorogynaceae

Danser, B.H. 1940. On some genera of Santalaceae Osyrideae from the Malay Archipelago, mainly from New Guinea. Nova Guinea, N.S. 4: 133-150. This paper is mostly in English, but a number of descriptions were in Latin and are thus translated HERE (483 kb).

Hürlimann, H., and H. U. Stauffer. 1957. Santalales-Studien II. Daenikera, eine neue Santalaceen-Gattung. Vierteljahrsschrift Naturf. Ges. Zürich 102:: 332-336. Original German pdf HERE (328 kb) and English HERE (324 kb).

Li, D. and Ding Y.  2005. Distribution, present situation and conservation strategy of the Genus Phacellaria. Biodiversity Science 13 (3): 262-268. Original Chinese HERE (115 kb) and English HERE (238 kb).

Stauffer, H.U. 1969. Santalales-Studien X. Amphorogyneae eine Neue Tribus der Santalaceae. Vierteljahrsschrift der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Zürich 114: 49-76. Original German HERE (2.4 mb) and English HERE (7.7 mb).

Viscaceae

Rutishauser P. 1937 Blütenmorphologische und embryologische Untersuchungen an den Viscoideen Korthalsella opuntia Merr. und Ginalloa linearis Dans. Berichte der Schweizer Botanischen Gesellschaft 47: 5-28. Original German HERE (2.2 mb) and English HERE (385 kb).

Rzedowski J, Calderón de Rzedowski, G. 2011. Dos especies notables de Phoradendron (Viscaceae) de la Mixteca Oaxacaqueña (México), una nueva y una complementada. Acta Bot. Mexicana 96: 3-10. Original Spanish HERE (729 kb) and English HERE (340 kb).


Last updated: 25-Sept-17 / dln