Translations of Parasitic Plant Literature


The papers listed on this page have been translated from their original language into English. For the most part, these represent older literature that had not previously been available in electronic form. Briefly, this is the process that was used to prepare the translations:

  1. The original text usually starts out as a pdf file. This may have been downloaded from the web or you may have scanned it yourself. If you are making the pdf from a photocopy (on paper), it is best to start with the highest quality possible. I sometimes use a photocopier to enlarge the original, trim unneeded edges, etc. I then use this "clean" copy to generate a pdf file (at 300 dpi resolution or so). 
  2. Once I have the pdf file on my computer, I use Adobe PhotoShop to make various adjustments. Because most of the literature I deal with is in black and white, I remove the color (Tools>Print Production>Preflight). The pages are often very dark, but I find that Acrobat is not the best place to do these edits. One can open individual pages in the file by using the Edit Using function and selecting Adobe PhotoShop. Once the page is opened there, I find that adjusting exposure is the best way to go (Image>Adjustments>Exposure). There you can increase the exposure and the gamma to optimize the image. Here you can also remove any imperfections, etc. When satisfied you save the file and it saves that page in Acrobat.
  3. The clean pdf file is now ready for OCR (Optical Character Recognition) where pixels of letters are turned into readable characters. If you have Adobe Acrobat Pro, this function is built in. From my experience, the error rate using this program is fairly high, which means lots of time is spent fixing the resulting text file. I found a web service that does a much better job called OnlineOCR.net. You can get 50 pages for free. If you require more pages than this, their rates are reasonable. It can convert your pdf to Microsoft Word and other formats. I especially like the accuracy with which it converts foreign language fonts, italics, bold, etc. and it even preserves some of the formatting.
  4. For me, the text from the converted pdf file is in MSWord format. Because the OCR is not perfect, the text must be corrected based on the original document (this takes the most time!). Common errors can be globally fixed using find and replace. The amount of editing depends upon the quality of the original scan.
  5. The foreign language text is then translated to English. Because I am not an expert in German, French,  Spanish, etc., I use web translation utilities.  If the text is short, it can be pasted into the translation window on Google Language Tools.  For longer text, I save the MSWord file as a web page (html), temporarily make that page available on the internet, and then use the Google Translate Web (iTools) web site. You simply paste in the (temporary) URL, select the language you want for the translation, and then hit the Translate button.  A window is presented that has your entire site translated.  The text is copied and then pasted into a new MSWord file for further editing.
  6. Because botany is full of jargon no matter what the language, there are a number of helpful web dictionaries that help with these scientific words. I should also mention the invaluable resource Elsevier's Dictionary of Botany II. General Terms (Macura 1982) which is a tremendous help with French, German and Russian botanical terms. The text generated by Google is sometimes quite good and other times far off from the original meaning. It is at this stage where most of the work takes place - checking various phrases, etc.
  7. In some cases I consulted colleagues who are fluent in the foreign language and who can critically check the translation. For the Russian translation, I have used OCR to convert the scan to Cyrillic characters, but I have not perfected working with this alphabet and automated translation utilities. For this reason, I have Alexey Shipunov to thank for doing the translation of the Teryokhin (1975) manuscript.
  8. Once I have the translated text in good order, final assembly of the document involves formatting and inserting figures. The MSWord document is printed as a pdf file and its size is then reduced. Again, this can be done in Adobe Acrobat, but I find some free web services do a better job.

The translations are obviously imperfect, but in most cases it is clear enough to grasp the general meaning. After doing a number of these, I can appreciate how bridging the communication gap is a real challenge! The result is never perfect because some concepts simply do not translate from one language to another. Maybe some of you who read these translations and are fluent in both languages can suggest improvements. I welcome your input!


MYCOHETEROTROPHS 

Beccari, O. 1878. Burmanniaceae. Malesia 1: 240–254. Original Italian pdf HERE (131 kb) and English HERE (146 kb).

Schlechter, R. 1913. Neue Burmanniaceae Papuasiens. Botanische Jahrbu?cher fu?r Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 49: 100–108. Modified German pdf HERE (424 kb) and English HERE (437 kb). The illustrations were separated by species from a plate where they were composited together to make comparisons more straightforward.

HAUSTORIAL PARASITES

Cynomoriaceae

Juel, O. 1910. Cynomorium und Hippuris. Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 4: 151-159. Original German HERE (260 kb) and English HERE (264 kb).

Teryokhin, E., Z. Nikiticheva, and M. Yakovlev. 1975. Development of the seed, endosperm and embryo of Cynomorium songaricum Rupr. (Cynomoriaceae). Bot. Zhurn. 60: 1603-1613. Original Russian HERE (2.3 mb) and English HERE (840 kb).

Weddell, H. A. 1860. Memoire sur le Cynomorium coccineum, parasite de l'ordre des Balanophorées. Archives du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle 10: 269-308. Original French HERE (10.5 mb) and English HERE (10.5 mb).

Cytinaceae

Alvarado-Cárdenas LO. 2009. Systemática del género Bdallophytum (Cytinaceae) [Systematics of the genus Bdallophytum (Cytinaceae)]. Acta Botanica Mexicana 87: 1-21. Original Spanish HERE (524 kb) and English translation HERE (623 kb).

Fernández-Alonso J, Cuadros-Villalobos H  (2012)  Sanguisuga, un género nuevo neotropical de Cytinaceae y una conexión sudamericana en la familia. Caldasia 34:291-308. Original Spanish HERE (684 kb) and English translation HERE (991 kb).

Harms, H. 1935. Rafflesiaceae, Tribe IV. Cytineae. Pages 276-281 in A. Engler and H. Harms, eds. Die Natürlichen Planzenfamilien. Wilhelm Engelman, Leipzig. Original German HERE (536 kb) and English translation HERE (5 kb).

Heinricher, E. 1933. Zur Frage der Artbildung bei Cytinus hypocistis nebst anderen Bemerkungen. Pages 48-53 in Hayata B, ed. Icones Plantarum Formosanarum III.  Original German HERE (78 kb) and English translation HERE (98 kb).

Jumelle H, Perrier de la Bathie H. 1915. Nouvelles notes biologiques sur flore malgache. Annales de la Faculté des Sciences de Marseille 23 (2): 23-51.
 Original French pdf HERE (369 kb) and English translation HERE (369 kb).

Watanabe, K. 1936. Über eine neue Gattung der Cytinaceae. Botanical Magazine Tokyo 50: 676-681. Original German HERE (360 kb) and English translation HERE (448 kb).

Santalales

Classification of families according to Nickrent et al. 2010 and Su et al. 2015 (for Balanophoraceae s. lat.)

Santalales - the order overall

Reif de Paula, C. H. 2004. Contribuição à Taxonomia das Famílias Eremolepidaceae, Loranthaceae e Viscaceae no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Ph.D. Dissertation. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Fernando Ferrari 75, Botafogo, CEP 22231-040. 57 pages + 55 plates.Original in Portuguese, translated to English by D. L. Nickrent:  Contribution to the Taxonomy of Eremolepidaceae, Loranthaceae and Viscaceae from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The English version of this thesis is available as a pdf file (4.8 MB) HERE.

Stauffer H. U. 1961. Beiträge zum Blütendiagramm der Santalales. Verhandlungen der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft 141: 123-125. Original German HERE (53 kb) and English translation HERE (57 kb).

Amphorogynaceae

Danser, B.H. 1940. On some genera of Santalaceae Osyrideae from the Malay Archipelago, mainly from New Guinea. Nova Guinea, N.S. 4: 133-150. This paper is mostly in English, but a number of descriptions were in Latin and are thus translated HERE (483 kb).

Hürlimann, H., and H. U. Stauffer. 1957. Santalales-Studien II. Daenikera, eine neue Santalaceen-Gattung. Vierteljahrsschrift Naturf. Ges. Zürich 102:: 332-336. Original German HERE (328 kb) and English HERE (324 kb).

Li, D. and Ding Y.  2005. Distribution, present situation and conservation strategy of the Genus Phacellaria. Biodiversity Science 13 (3): 262-268. Original Chinese HERE (115 kb) and English HERE (238 kb).

Stauffer, H.U. 1969. Santalales-Studien X. Amphorogyneae eine Neue Tribus der Santalaceae. Vierteljahrsschrift der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Zürich 114: 49-76. Original German HERE (2.4 mb) and English HERE (7.7 mb).

Stauffer, H. U. and H. Hurlimann. 1957. Santalales-Studien III. Amphorogyne, eine weitere Santalaceen-Gattung aus Neukaledonien. Viertelj. Schr. Naturf. Ges. Zurich 102:337-349. Original German HERE (72 kb, text only, no photos) and English HERE (2.7 mb, with photos, but scanned from a photocopy, so poor quality).

Aptandraceae

Malécot V, Schatz GE, Bosser J. 2003. Révision synoptique du genre Phanerodiscus Cavaco (Olacaceae) à Madagascar. Adansonia 25: 119-128. Original French HERE (950 kb) and English translation HERE (504 kb).

Balanophoraceae

Eichler, A.W. 1867. Sur la structure femelle de quelques Balanophoracées. Pp. 137-155 in: Fournier, E., (ed), Actes du congrès international de botanique tenu à Paris en août 1867. Germer Baillière, Paris. p 137-155. Original French HERE (274 kb) and English HERE (299 kb).

Fagerlind F. 1938. Ditepalanthus, eine neue Balanophoraceen-Gattung aus Madagaskar. Arkiv för Botanik, Stockholm 29A (7):1-15. Photos of poor quality (from scan). Original German HERE (1.5 Mb) and English HERE (1.5 Mb).

Fagerlind, F. 1945. Blüte und Blütenstand der Gattung Balanophora. Botaniska Notiser 45: 330-350. Original German HERE (396 kb) and English HERE (408 kb).

Fagerlind F. 1945. Bau der floralen Organe der Gattung Langsdorffia. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 39:197-210. Original German HERE (435 kb) and English HERE (400 kb).

Halle, N. 1978. Illustration de deux rares Balanophoracees d'Afrique Equatoriale appartenant aux genres Chlamydophytum Mildbr. et Balanophora Forst. Adansonia 17(3): 249 - 261.  Original French HERE (2.7 mb) and English HERE (2.7 mb).

Harms, H. 1935. Balanophoraceae. 5. Chlamydophytum. Page 316 in A. Engler and K. Prantl, eds. Die Natürlichen Planzenfamilien. Wilhelm Engelman, Leipzig. Original German and English translation HERE (111 kb).

Jumelle, MMH and Perrier de la Bâthie H. 1912. Quelques phanérogames parasites de Madagascar. Revue Générale de Botanique 24:321-328. [includes discussion of Thonningia (Langsdorffia), Balaniella (Balanophora), Rhopalocnemis (Ditepalanthus), and Hydnora esculenta]. Original French HERE (293 kb) and English translation HERE (274 kb).

Mangenot G, Mangenot S. 1968. Sur la présence de leucoplastes chez les végétaux vasculaires mycotrophes ou parasites. Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences Paris (Série D - Sciences naturelles) 267D:1193-1195. Original French HERE (0.9 mb) and English HERE (0.9 mb). [This reference is included here because it deals with Thonningia].

Weber HC, Sunaryo. 1990. Kolbenträgerschmarotzer (Balanophoraceae: Extreme Blütenpflanzen mit pilzlichem Charakter. Biologische Rundschau 28: 83-86. Original German HERE (238 kb) and English HERE (274 kb).

Cervantesiaceae

Halle, N. 1987. Okoubaka Pellegrin et Normand est vraiment un genre de Santalaceae. Bull. Mus. Nation. Hist. Nat., B (=Adansonia), 9: 355-363. Original French HERE (1.9 mb) and English translation HERE (1.8 mb).

Leonard, J., and G. Troupin. 1950. Observation sur le genre Okoubaka Pellegr. et Normand (Octoknemaceae). Bull. Bot. L'Etat Brux. 20: 11-14. Original French HERE (140 kb) and English HERE (160 kb).

Louis, J., and J. Leonard. 1948. Octoknemaceae. Pages 288-293. Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi. Spermatophytes, Bruxelles. The paper describes both Octoknema (Olacaceae) and Okoubaka (Santalaceae). Original French HERE (548 kb) and English translation HERE (544 kb).

Stauffer, H. U. 1957. Santalales-Studien I. Zur Stellung der Gattung Okoubaka Pellegrin et Normand. Ber. Schweiz. Bot. Ges. 67:422-427. Original German HERE (124 kb) and English HERE (148 kb).

Stauffer, H. U. 1961. Santalales-Studien VII. Sudamerikansche Santalaceae I. Acanthosyris, Cervantesia und Jodina. Viertelj. Schr. Naturf. Ges. Zurich 106: 406-412. Original German HERE (108 kb) and English HERE (320 kb).

Coulaceae (Olacaceae s. lat.)

Stauffer H. U. 1961. Santalales-Studien. VIII. Zur Morphologie und Taxonomie der Olacaceae-Tribus Couleae. Vierteljahrsschrift der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Zürich 106: 412-418. Original German HERE (188 kb) and English translation HERE (193 kb).

Erythropalaceae

Fagerlind F. 1946. Gynöceummorphologische, embryologie und systematische stellung der gattung Erythropalum. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 40: 9-14. Original German HERE (295 kb) and English translation HERE (287 kb).

Loranthaceae

Balle S. 1964. 60 Loranthacées. Pages 124. Flore de Madagascar. Paris: Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle. Footnotes and illustrations placed at end of document. Index page numbers do not correspond to the pagination in these documents. Original French HERE (1.9 Mb) and English translation HERE (2.2 Mb).

Balle S. 1964. Les Loranthacées de Madagascar et des archipels voisins. Adansonia nouvelle serie 4:105-141. Footnotes, figure legends and figures placed at end of paper. Note that here Loranthacées includes what is today considered Loranthaceae s. str. and Viscaceae. Genera covered are Bakerella, Socratina, Viscum, and Korthasella. Photos of poor quality (from scan). Original French HERE (1.3 mb) and English translation HERE (1.3 mb).

Basáñez, M. J. C. H. O. Rivera, F. R. Farí­as, and J. A.Vázquez-García 2005. Cladocolea oligantha (Loranthaceae) un nuevo registro para veracruz, México, y datos generales sobre este taxón. Polibotánica 20: 1-15. Original Spanish HERE (209 kb) and English translation HERE (934 kb).

Cocucci AE, Venturelli M. 1982. El ovulo y el gineceo en Loranthaceae. Boletin de la Sociedad Argentina de Botanica 21:131-141. Original Spanish HERE (532 kb) and English translation HERE (526 kb).

Danser B.H. 1933. Thaumasianthes eine neue Loranthaceengattung aus den Philippinen. Recueil des Travaux Botaniques Néerlandais 30:464-474.Original German HERE (744 kb) and English translation HERE (944 kb).

Danser B. H. 1935. A revision of the Philippine Loranthaceae. Philip. Jour. Sci. 58: 1-149. This is actually not a translation but a conversion of the original document (pdf, > 20 mb) via OCR to text (MSWord) and then back to pdf.  Given that OCR was used, there are undoubtedly errors in this document, particularly in the Latin descriptions and list of herbarium numbers where I did not have the energy to do thorough editing.  The pagination here is not the same as the original document. Manuscript available HERE (930 kb).

Lecomte, H. 1914a. Loranthacées d’Indo-Chine. Notulae Systematicae (Paris) 3: 65-82. Original French document converted to text (OCR) and saved as MSWord HERE (846 kb); English translation HERE (846 kb). Footnotes renumbered consecutively and placed at end of document. Pagination is not the same as the original.

Lecomte, H. 1914. Le genre Elytranthe en Indo-Chine. Notulae Systematicae (Paris) 3: 91-99. Original French document converted to text (OCR) and saved as MSWord HERE (176 kb); English translation HERE (132 kb). Footnotes renumbered consecutively and placed at end of document. Pagination is not the same as the original.

Robles A, Raz L, Marquínez X. 2016. Anatomía Floral de Peristethium leptostachyum (Loranthaceae). Revista de Biologia Tropical 64:357-368. Original Spanish HERE (668 kb) and English translation HERE (573 kb). The pagination for the English version is not the same as the original.

Tieghem, P. v. 1894. Sur les Loxanthera, Amylotheca et Treubella, trois genres nouveaux pour la tribu des Élytranthêes dans la famille des Loranthacées. Bulletin de la Société botanique de France 41:257-269. Original French document converted to text (OCR) and saved as MSWord HERE (211 kb); English translation HERE (123 kb). Footnotes renumbered consecutively and placed at end of document. Pagination is not the same as the original.

Tieghem, P. v. 1894. Trithecanthera, Lysiana et Alepis, trois genres nouveaux pour la famille des Loranthacées. Bulletin de la Société botanique de France 41:597- 605. Original French document converted to text (OCR) and saved as MSWord HERE (108 kb); English translation HERE (103 kb). Footnotes renumbered consecutively and placed at end of document. Pagination is not the same as the original.

Tieghem, P. v. 1895. Sur le groupement des esèces en genres dans les Loranthacées a calice dialysépale et anthéres oscillantes our Struthanthés. Bulletin de la Société botanique de France 42 (2):161-180. Original French document converted to text (OCR) and saved as MSWord HERE (343 kb); English translation HERE (245 kb). Footnotes renumbered consecutively and placed at end of document. Pagination is not the same as the original.

Tieghem, P. v. 1895. Sur le groupement des espèces en genera dans les Loranthacées a calice gamosépale et anthéres basifixes ou Dendrophthoées. Bulletin de la Société botanique de France 42:241-272. Original French document converted to text (OCR) and saved as MSWord HERE (528 kb); English translation HERE (539 kb). Footnotes renumbered consecutively and placed at end of document. Pagination is not the same as the original.

Tieghem, P. v. 1895. Sur le groupement des espèces en genres dans la tribu des Elytranthés de la famille des Loranthacées. Bulletin de la Société botanique de France 42: 443-449. Original French document converted to text (OCR) and saved as MSWord HERE (442 kb); English translation HERE (334 kb). Footnotes renumbered consecutively and placed at end of document. Pagination is not the same as the original.

Tieghem, P. v. 1895. Sur le groupement des espèces en genres dans la tribu des Gaiadendrées de la famille des Loranthacées. Bulletin de la Société botanique de France 42 (2):455-460. Original French document converted to text (OCR) and saved as MSWord HERE (140 kb); English translation HERE (163 kb). Footnotes renumbered consecutively and placed at end of document. Pagination is not the same as the original.

Venturelli M. 1983. Estudos embriológicos em Loranthaceae: Genero Tripodanthus. Kurtziana 16:71-90. Original Portuguese HERE (1.2 mb) and English translation HERE (1.2 mb).

Venturelli M. 1984. Morfologia e anatomia floral de Struthanthus vulgaris  Mart. (Loranthaceae)  Rev. Brazil Bot. 7:121-128. Original Portuguese HERE (565 kb) and English translation HERE (551 kb).

Misodendraceae

Skottsberg, C. 1935. Myzodendraceae. Pages 92-97 in A. Engler and K. Prantl, eds. Die Natürlichen Planzenfamilien. Wilhelm Engelman, Leipzig. Original German HERE (680 kb) and English translation HERE (704 kb).

Olacaceae

Engler A. 1889. Olacaceae. Pages 231-242 in Engler A, Prantl K, eds. Die Natürlichen Planzenfamilien. Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann. Original German HERE (300 kb) and English translation HERE (283 kb).

Fagerlind, F. 1940 Beobachtungen über die Kletterorgane bei Olax. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 34:26-34. Original German HERE (639 kb) and English translation HERE (659 kb).

Octoknemaceae

Louis, J., and J. Leonard. 1948. Octoknemaceae. Pages 288-293. Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi. Spermatophytes, Bruxelles. The paper describes both Octoknema (Olacaceae) and Okoubaka (Santalaceae). Original French HERE (548 kb) and English translation HERE (544 kb).

Santalaceae (in both the strict and broad sense, including "Eremolepidaceae")

Engler, A., and K. Krause. 1935. Loranthaceae. Pages 98-203 in A. Engler and K. Prantl, eds. Die Natürlichen Planzenfamilien. Engelmann, W., Leipzig. Translation of Viscoideae-Eremolepideae portion only (pages 182-184). Original German HERE (256 kb) and English HERE (252 kb).

Pilger, R. 1935. Santalaceae. Pages 52-91 in A. Engler and K. Prantl, eds. Die Natürlichen Pflanzen Familien. Engelmann, W., Leipzig. Original German HERE (2.5 mb) and English HERE (2.5 mb).

Stauffer, H. U. 1959. Santalales-Studien IV. Revisio Anthobolearum. Mitt. Bot. Mus. Univ. Zurich 213:1-260. [just the portion dealing with Omphacomeria]. Original German HERE (48 kb) and English HERE (56 kb).

Stauffer HU. 1961. Santalales-Studien V. Afrikanische Santalaceae I. Osyris, Colpoon und Rhoiacarpos. Vierteljahrsschrift der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Zurich 106:387-400. Original German HERE (573 kb) and English HERE (557 kb).

Stauffer, H.U. 1963. Gestaltwandel bei Blütenständen von Dicotyledonen. Botanishe Jahrbücher 82:216-251. Note that this document was produced by OCR from a photocopy of the original journal article. Some conversion errors may still exist. For this and the English translation, the illustrations were all placed together at the end of the document and the legends were made more specific (full scientific names given). There are apparently 4 supplemental figures that are not included here. Job Kuijt is gratefully acknowledged for helping with the translation. Original German HERE (1.1 mb) and English HERE (1.1 mb).

Schoepfiaceae

Skottsberg, C. 1940. Notas sobre el genero Arjona. Revista Universidad (Santiago) 25: 103-108. Original Spanish HERE (344 kb) and English translation HERE (365 kb).

Sleumer H. O. 1935. Olacaceae. Schoepfioideae, pages 30-31 (total 5-32) in Engler A, Harms H, eds. Die Natürlichen Planzenfamilien, vol. Edition 2, Part 16b. Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelman. Original German HERE (217 kb) and English translation HERE (213 kb).

Tieghem, P. van. 1896. Sur les phanérogames à ovule sans nucelle, formant le groupe des innucellées ou santalinées. Bulletin de la Sociéte Botanique de France 43: 543-577. [pages 548-554 here, on Arjonaceae and Schoepfiaceae]. Original French HERE (70 kb) and English translation HERE (70 kb).

Strombosiaceae

Michaux M. 1966. Contribution à l'étude des Olacacées d'Afrique tropicale. Diogoa, pages 268-269 (total 157-290) in Schnell R, Grout de Beaufort F, Bernhard F, Michaud M, eds. Mémoires de l'institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire, Mélanges Botaniques, vol. 75. Dakar, Sengal: Musée de Institut Fondamental d'Afrique (IFAN). Original French HERE (94 kb) and English translation HERE (106 kb).

Michaux M. 1966. Contribution à l'étude des Olacacées d'Afrique tropicale. Strombosiopsis, pages 262-264 (total 157-290) in Schnell R, Grout de Beaufort F, Bernhard F, Michaud M, eds. Mémoires de l'institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire, Mélanges Botaniques, vol. 75. Dakar, Sengal: Musée de Institut Fondamental d'Afrique (IFAN). Original French HERE (119 kb) and English translation HERE (70 kb).

Thesiaceae

Cavaco A, Keraudren M. 1955. 58ème Famille - Santalacées in Humbert H, ed. Flore de Madagascar et des Comores. Paris: Firmin-Didot. Original French HERE (213 kb) and English translation HERE (211 kb).

Gutermann, W. 2009 Notulae nomenclaturales 29–40 (Zur Nomenklatur von Gefäßpflanzen Österreichs). Phyton 49 (1): 77-92. Original German HERE (93 K) and English translation HERE (92 K).

Modilewski, I. 1928. Die Embryologische Entwicklung von Thesium intermedium. Bull. Jard. Bot. de Kieff 7: 65-70. Original German HERE (2.2 mb) and English translation HERE (2.2 mb). 

Santos Guerra, Arnoldo. 1993. Kunkeliella retamoides Santos, sp. nova (Santalaceae, sect. Amphorogyne Staufer), nueva especie de la flora Canaria. Anales Jardín Botánico de Madrid 51(1): 145-146. Spanish and English translation HERE (82 kb).

Stauffer, H. U. 1961. Santalales-Studien VI. Afrikanische Santalaceae II. Osyridicarpos. Viertelj. Schr. Naturf. Ges. Zurich 106: 400-406. Original German HERE (180 kb) and English HERE (225 kb).

Viscaceae

Gjokic G. 1896. Zur Anatomie der Früchte und des Samens von Viscum. Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe, K1., Abt. 1 105:447-464. Original German HERE (274 kb) and English HERE (263 kb).

Kim C-W, Yi J-S. 2013. Germination and seedling induction of Viscum album var. coloratum (Kom.) Ohwi after artificial inoculation on the branch of host plants. Journal of Forest and Environmental Science 29:173-180. Original Korean HERE (598 kb) and English HERE (228 kb).

Rutishauser P. 1937 Blütenmorphologische und embryologische Untersuchungen an den Viscoideen Korthalsella opuntia Merr. und Ginalloa linearis Dans. Berichte der Schweizer Botanischen Gesellschaft 47: 5-28. Original German HERE (814 kb) and English HERE (938 kb).

Rzedowski J, Calderón de Rzedowski, G. 2011. Dos especies notables de Phoradendron (Viscaceae) de la Mixteca Oaxacaqueña (México), una nueva y una complementada. Acta Bot. Mexicana 96: 3-10. Original Spanish HERE (729 kb) and English HERE (340 kb).

Tomann G. 1906. Vergleichende Untersuchungen über die Beschaffenheit des Fruchtschleimes von Viscum album L. und Loranthus europaeus L. und dessen biologische Bedeutung. Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe, K1., Abt. 1 115:353?365. Original German HERE (164 kb) and English HERE (219 kb).

Ximeniaceae

Cavaco A, Keraudren M. 1955. Sur le Ximenia (Olacacées) de Madagascar, une nouvelle espèce d'Olax. Bul. Soc. Bot. France 102:117-119. Original French HERE (147 kb) and English translation HERE (152 kb).

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Last updated 13 January  2022