Parasitic Plant Classification

This list gives the author's current concept of phylogenetic relationships among all parasitic flowering plants. The highlighted family names link to the main index page for that family. These pages contain descriptions, distribution maps, photographs, references, etc. These 12 orders represent the 12 independent evolutionary events that gave rise to parasitic angiosperms:

1. Boraginales (Lennoaceae)
2. Cucurbitales (Apodanthaceae)
3. Ericales (Mitrastemonaceae)
4. Lamiales (Orobanchaceae)
5. Laurales (Lauraceae - Cassytha)
6. Malpighiales (Rafflesiaceae)
7. Malvales (Cytinaceae)
8. Piperales (Hydnoraceae)
9. Santalales (20 families, including Balanophoraceae)
10. Saxifragales (Cynomoriaceae)
11. Solanales (Convolvulaceae - Cuscuta)
12. Zygophyllales (Krameriaceae)

Laurales Perleb

Lauraceae A. L. de Jussieu (1789)

  1. Cassytha L. 16 species of Old and New World tropics.


Hydnoraceae C. A. Agardh. (1821)

1. Hydnora Thunb. 12-15 species, tropical and S. Africa, Madagasgar.
2. Prosopanche Bary. 3 species of Argentina, Paraguay, Costa Rica.

Santalales Dumort

Olacaceae s. lat. Molecular phylogenetic work by Malécot and Nickrent (2008) provided data supporting the existence of several clades in what is traditionally called "Olacaceae".  These clades have been recognized at the rank of family in Nickrent et al. (2010).  At present it is not clear whether Brachynema Bentham (2 species, B. axillare R. Duno & P.E. Berry and B. ramiflorum Benth., of Brazil) resides within Santalales.

Erythropalaceae Planch ex Miquel (1856)

1. Erythropalum Blume. 1 species, E. scandens Blume, in Indomalaysia.
2. Heisteria Jacq. 34 species of tropical America, three species in Africa.
3. Maburea Maas. 1 species M. trinervis of Guyana.

Strombosiaceae Tiegh. (1899)

4. Diogoa Exell & Mendonça. 1 species, D. zenkeri Engl. of tropical Africa.
5. Engomegoma Breteler. 1 species of Gabon.
6. Scorodocarpus Becc. 1 species, S. borneensis (Baillon) Becc., in Malaysia.
7. Strombosia Blume. 10  inspecies Old World tropics, 3 in tropical Asia, 6 in tropical Africa.
8. Strombosiopsis Engl. 3 species of tropical Africa.
9. Tetrastylidium Engl. 2 species of South America.

Ximeniaceae Horan (1834)

1. Curupira Black. 1 species, C. tefeenis Black, of amazonian Brazil.
2. Douradoa Sleumer. 1 species, D. consimilis Sleumer, of Brazil (Amapa, Para).
3. Malania Chun & Lee. 1 species, M. oleifera Chun & Lee, of W. Kwangsi & E. Yunnan provinces of China.
4. Ximenia L. 10 species in Old and New World tropics.

Coulaceae Tiegh. (1897)

1. Coula Baillon. 1 species, C. edulis Baillon, of tropical W. Africa.
2. Minquartia Aublet. 1 species, M. guianensis Aubl., of tropical America.
3. Ochanostachys Masters. 1 species, O. amentacea Masters, in W. Malaysia.

Aptandraceae Miers (1853)

1. Anacolosa (Blume) Blume. 16 species in the Old World tropics.
2. Aptandra Miers. 4 species of tropical America and Africa.
3. Cathedra Miers. 5 species of Brazil.
4. Chaunochiton Benth. 3 species, tropical America.
5. Harmandia Baillon. 1 species, H. mekongensis Pierre ex Baillon, in SE Asia and Malaysia.
6. Hondurodendron Ulloa, Nickrent, Whitefoord, & Kelly.  1 species, H. urceolatum, from Honduras.
7. Ongokea Pierre. 1 species, O. gore (Hua) Pierre in tropical W. Africa.
8. Phanerodiscus Cavaco. 3 species, Madagascar.

Octoknemaceae Soler (1908)

1. Octoknema Pierre. 14 species in tropical Africa.

Olacaceae s. str. R. Brown (1818)

1. Dulacia Sleumer [= Liriosma]. 13 species of South America.
2. Olax L. 42 species in Old World tropics and S. Africa.
3. Ptychopetalum Benth. 5 species, 2 in tropical S. America, 2-3 species in tropical W and Central Africa.

Schoepfiaceae Blume (1850)

Molecular data (Nickrent 1996, 1998, Vidal-Russel and Nickrent 2008) all indicate that these genera are related to one another and distinct from Olacaceae and Santalaceae.

  1. Arjona Cav. 8 species of tropical & temperate S. America.
  2. Quinchamalium Molina. 25 species of Andean S. America.
  3. Schoepfia Schreber. 25 species in tropical America and Asia.

Misodendraceae J. Agardh (1858)

1. Misodendrum Banks ex DC. 8 species of S. America, mainly south of 33 degrees.

Loranthaceae Juss. (1808)

Molecular phylogenetic work by Vidal-Russell and Nickrent (2008) provided evidence for several clades within Loranthaceae.  The family was formally reclassified in Nickrent et al. (2010) and that classification is given below.  Base chromosome numbers for the tribes and subtribes are given.

Tribe Nuytsieae Tiegh. (X = 12)
  1. Nuytsia R. Brown ex G. Don f. 1 species, N. floribunda (Labill.) R. Br. ex G. Don f., of W. Australia.
Tribe Gaiadendreae Tiegh. (X = 12)
  1. Atkinsonia F. Muell. 1 species, A. ligustrina F. Muell., of the Blue Mts., SE Australia.
  2. Gaiadendron G. Don. 1 species, G. punctatum (R. & P.) G. Don., of the N. Andes to Costa Rica.
Tribe Elytrantheae Engl. (X = 12)
  1. Alepis Tiegh. 1 species, A. flavida Hook. f) Tiegh., of N. Zealand.
  2. Amylotheca Tiegh. 4 species of E Australia, New Guinea, Melanesia.
  3. Cyne Danser. 6 species of the Philippines, Moluccas and New Guinea. Includes Tetradyas Danser. (T. perfoliata Dans.) of New Guinea.
  4. Decaisnina Tiegh. 25 species of Malesia, Philippines to tropical Australia and Tahiti.
  5. Elytranthe Blume. 7 species of SE Asia, Malaysia [possibly congeneric with Macrosolen].
  6. Lampas Danser. 1 species, L. elmeri Danser, of N. Borneo.
  7. Lepeostegeres Blume. 10 species of Malaya, Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes, Philippines east to New Guinea.
  8. Lepidaria Tiegh. 14 species of W. Malaysia.
  9. Loxanthera Blume 1 species, L. speciosa Blume, of Malaya, Sumatra, Java, Borneo.
  10. Lysiana Tiegh. 8 species from Australia.
  11. Macrosolen (Blume) Reichb. Ca. 50 species of Sri Lanka to SE Asia to New Guinea.
  12. Peraxilla Tiegh. 2 species of N. Zealand.
  13. Trilepidea Tiegh. 1 species, T. adamsii (Cheesm.) Tiegh., of New Zealand (extinct).
  14. Thaumasianthes Danser. 1 species, T. amplexifolius (Merr.) Dans., of the Philippines.

Tribe Psittacantheae Horan. (X = 12, 8)

Subtribe Tupeinae Nickrent & Vidal-Russell (X = 12)
  1. Tupeia Cham. & Schlechtd. 1 species, T. antarctica (Forst. f) Chamb. & Schlecht., of New Zealand.
Subtribe Notantherinae Nickrent & Vidal-Russell (X = 12)
  1. Desmaria Tiegh. 1 species, D. mutabilis (Poepp. & Endl.) Tiegh. ex Jacks, of S. Chile.
  2. Notanthera (DC) G. Don. f. 1 species, N. heterophylla (R. & P) G. Don, of temperate S. America.
Subtribe Ligarinae Nickrent & Vidal-Russell (X = 10, 12)
  1. Ligaria Tiegh. 2 species of arid and subtemperate S. America.
  2. Tristerix Mart. 13 species of S. temperate and high Andean S. America.
Subtribe Psittacanthinae Engl. (X = 8)
    1. Aetanthus (Eichl.) Engl. 15 species of the northern Andes.
    2. Cladocolea Tiegh. 28 species of Mexico, Central and South America.
    3. Dendropemon (Blume) Reichb. 32 species of the Caribbean.
    4. Maracanthus Kuijt. 4 species of Colombia, Venezuela, Costa Rica.
    5. Oryctanthus Eichl. 15 species of tropical America.
    6. Oryctina Tiegh. 6 species of Brazil, Guyana, Suriname, and Western Venezuela.
    7. Panamanthus Kuijt. 1 species, P. panamensis (Rizz.) Kuijt, of Panama.
    8. Passovia H. Karst. 21 species of tropical America.
    9. Peristethium Tiegh. 18 species of tropical America.
    10. Phthirusa Mart. (including Ixocactus). 7 (or more?) species of Central and South America, Caribbean.
    11. Psittacanthus Mart. ca. 121 species of Mexico, Central and South America.
    12. Pusillanthus Kuijt. 1 species, P. pubescens (Rizzini) Caires, of Venezuela, Brazil (Paraíba, Bahia).
    13. Struthanthus Mart. ca. 50 species of tropical America.
    14. Tripodanthus (Eichl.) Tiegh. 3 species of sub-temperate and high Andean S. America.
Tribe Lorantheae Rchb. 
Subtribe Ileostylinae Nickrent & Vidal-Russell (X = 11)
  1. Ileostylus Tiegh. 1 species, I. micranthus (Hook. f.) Tiegh., of N. Zealand.
  2. Muellerina Tiegh. 5 species endemic to E. Australia.
Subtribe Loranthinae Engl. (X = 9)
  1. Cecarria Barlow. 1 species, C. obtusifolia (Merr.) Barlow, of New Guinea, Philippines, New Britain, Solomon Islands.
  2. Loranthus Jacq. 9 species of Europe, Asia, Nepal, India (Assam), Burma and S. China to Indochina, Taiwan, Sumatra.
Subtribe Amyeminae Nickrent & Vidal-Russell (X = 9)
  1. Amyema Tiegh. 93 species of the Malay peninsula, Australia, W. Pacific.
  2. Baratranthus Miq. [= Barathranthus Dans.] 3 species of Sri Lanka and Malaysia.
  3. Benthamina Tiegh. 1 species, B. alyxifolia (F. Muell. ex Benth.) Tiegh., endemic to Australia.
  4. Dactyliophora Tiegh. 3 species of Papuasia, N. Queensland Australia.
  5. Diplatia Tiegh. 3 species of tropical Australia.
  6. Distrianthes Danser. 1 species, D. moliflora (Krause) Dans., of New Guinea.
  7. Helicanthes Danser. 1 species, H. elasticus (Desr.) Dans., of India.
  8. Papuanthes Danser. 1 species, P. albertisii Dans., of New Guinea.
  9. Sogerianthe Danser. 4 species of E. New Guinea to the Solomon Islands.
Subtribe Scurrulinae Nickrent & Vidal-Russell (X = 9)
  1. Scurrula L. 44 species of SE Asia and Malaysia.
  2. Taxillus Tiegh. 86 species of India, Sri Lanka to China, Japan, Philippines, Borneo and Africa (Kenya coast).
Subtribe Dendrophthoinae Nickrent & Vidal-Russell (X = 9)
  1. Dendrophthoe Mart. 59 species from India to SE Asia, Australia, and the Philippines with its center of diversity in W. Malesia.
  2. Helixanthera Lour. 55 species of tropical Africa, Asia, Malesia.
  3. Tolypanthus Blume. 7 species from E India to SE China.
  4. Trithecanthera Tiegh. (including Kingella scortenchinii), 5 species W. Malaysia.
Subtribe Emelianthinae Nickrent & Vidal-Russell (X = 9)
  1. Emelianthe Danser. 2 species of tropical Africa.
  2. Erianthemum Tiegh. 16 species of E and S Africa.
  3. Globimetula Tiegh. 13 species of tropical Africa.
  4. Moquiniella Balle. 1 species, M. rubra (Spreng. f.) Balle, of Namibia and Cape Prov. of S. Africa.
  5. Oliverella Tiegh. 3 species of E and S central Africa.
  6. Phragmanthera Tiegh. 35 species of tropical Africa and Arabia.
  7. Spragueanella Balle. 2 species in E and S central Africa.
Subtribe Tapinanthinae Nickrent & Vidal-Russell (X = 9)
  1. Actinanthella Balle. 2 species of SE and S Africa.
  2. Agelanthus Tiegh. 59 species of Africa and the Arabian peninsula.
  3. Bakerella Tiegh. 16 species of Madagascar.
  4. Berhautia Balle. 1 species, B. senegalensis Balle, of Senegal and Gambia.
  5. Englerina Tiegh. 26 species in tropical Africa.
  6. Oedina Tiegh. 4 species of E Africa.
  7. Oncella Tiegh. 4 species of E Africa.
  8. Oncocalyx Tiegh. (including Tieghemia) 12 species of E and S Africa to Arabia.
  9. Pedistylis Wiens. 1 species, P. galpinii (Schinz ex Sprague) Wiens, of S. Africa.
  10. Plicosepalus Tiegh. 12 species of Middle East and Arabia, to E Africa, Angola and S. Africa.
  11. Septulina Tiegh. 2 species of S. Africa.
  12. Socratina S. Balle. 3 species of Madagasgar.
  13. Tapinanthus (Blume) Reichb. 30 species of tropical and S Africa.
  14. Vanwykia Wiens. 1 species, V. remota (Bak. & Sprague) Wiens, of South Africa.

Opiliaceae Valeton (1886)

  1. Agonandra Miers ex Benth. 10 species of Mexico, Central and tropical S. America.
  2. Anthobolus R. Brown. 3 species of Australia.
  3. Cansjera Juss. 3 species of India and Ceylon to S. China, New Guinea and N. Australia.
  4. Champereia Griffith. 1 variable species, C. manillana (Blume) Merr., of Andamans, Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Taiwan; in Malesia widely distributed from Sumatra to W. New Guinea.
  5. Gjellerupia Lauterb. 1 species, G. papuana Laut., of New Guinea.
  6. Lepionurus Blume. 1 species, L. sylvestris Blume, from Nepal and Assam to western Malesia.
  7. Melientha Pierre. 1 species, M. suavis Pierre, of SE Asia to the Philippines.
  8. Opilia Roxb. 2 species of Africa, Asia, Indonesia, Australia.
  9. Pentarhopalopilia Hiepko. 4 species of Africa and Madagascar.
  10. Rhopalopilia Pierre. 3 species of tropical Africa.
  11. Urobotrya Stapf. 7 species of Africa and SE Asia.

Santalaceae R. Brown s. lat. 

Molecular phylogenetic work by Der and Nickrent (2008) highlighted the existence of several clades in what is traditionally called "Santalaceae".  These clades were described at the rank of family in Nickrent et al. (2010). The genus Anthobolus has been moved to Opiliaceae and Arjona and Quinchamalium to Schoepfiaceae.

Comandraceae Nickrent & Der (2010)

  1. Comandra Nutt. 1 species, C. umbellata (L.) Nutt. of North America, Europe and the Mediterranean. 
  2. Geocaulon Fern. 1 species: G. lividum (Rich.) Fern. of Alaska and Canada.

Thesiaceae Vest (1818)

  1. Buckleya Torrey. 5 species, E. U.S. and E. Asia.
  2. Lacomucinaea Nickrent & M. A. García. 1 species, southern Africa.
  3. Osyridicarpos A. DC. 1 species: O. schimperianus (Hochst.) A. DC of Africa.
  4. Thesium L. [includes Austroamericium Hendrych and Chrysothesium Hendrych, Kunkeliella Stearn, and Thesidium Sond.]. ca. 350 species in Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia, S. America. Thesium ramosum has been introduced to North America and Canada (Musselman and Haynes, 1996).

Cervantesiaceae Nickrent & Der (2010)

  1. Acanthosyris (Eichl.) Griseb. 6 species from temperate S. America.
  2. Cervantesia Ruiz & Pavon. 2 species of Andean S. America.
  3. Jodina Hook. & Arn. ex Meissner. 1 species of S. Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina.
  4. Okoubaka Pellegrin & Normand. 2 species of tropical Africa.
  5. Pilgerina Rogers, Nickrent, & Malécot. 1 species of Madagascar.
  6. Pyrularia Michx. 2 species, 1 of SE US, 1 of China, Himalayas.
  7. Scleropyrum Arnott. [includes Scleromelum K.Schum. & Lauterb.] 4 species of Malesia, New Guinea, S.E. Asia, India.
  8. Staufferia Rogers, Nickrent, & Malécot. 1 species of Madagascar.

Nanodeaceae Nickrent & Der (2010)

  1. Mida Cunn. ex Endl. 1 species, M. salicifolia A. Cunn. from N. Zealand. The taxon "Mida fernandeziana" from the Juan Fernandez Islands is actually Santalum fernandezianum.
  2. Nanodea Banks ex Gaertner f. 1 species: N. muscosa Gaertn. f. of temperate S. America (Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego, Falkland Islands).

Santalaceae R. Br. (1810), emend. (s. str.)

  1. Antidaphne Poeppig & Endlicher. 9 species S. America, Caribbean, Mexico.
  2. Colpoon P. Bergius [including Fusanus L. pro parte]. 2 species of S. Africa.
  3. Eubrachion Hooker f. 2 species from Jamaica, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Venezuela.
  4. Exocarpos Labill. [including Elaphanthera N.Halle] 26 species of SE Asia, Malaysia to Hawaii.
  5. Lepidoceras Hooker f. 2 species from Chile.
  6. Myoschilos Ruiz & Pav. 1 species, Argentina and Chile.
  7. Nestronia Raf. [= Darbya A.Gray] 1 species, N. umbellula Raf. of E. U.S.
  8. Omphacomeria (Endl.) A. DC. 1 species: O. acerba (R. Br.) A. DC of SE Australia.
  9. Osyris L. 4-5 species of Europe, Mediterranean, Africa to India.
  10. Rhoiacarpos A. DC. 1 species: R. capensis (Harv.) A. DC. of S. Africa.
  11. Santalum L. [including Eucarya T.L. Mitch, Fusanus R.Br. pro parte] 16 species from Indomalaya to Australia, Hawaii.

Amphorogynaceae (Stauffer ex Stearn) Nickrent & Der, stat. nov.

  1. Amphorogyne Stauffer & Hürlimann. 3 species of New Caledonia.
  2. Choretrum R. Brown. 7 species in Australia.
  3. Daenikera Hürl & Stauffer. 1 species: D. corallina Hürlimann of New Caledonia.
  4. Dendromyza Danser (including Cladomyza Danser). ca. 20 species of SE Asia, Malaysia, Indonesia, New Guinea.
  5. Dendrotrophe Miq. [incuding Henslowia Blume]. 7 species from Himalayas to the Philippines and Malaysia, Indonesia.
  6. Dufrenoya Chatin. 13 species of Indonesia and Malaysia.
  7. Leptomeria R. Brown. 17 species of Australia.
  8. Phacellaria Benth. 6 species of E. India to S. China.
  9. Spirogardnera George. 1 species, S. rubescens Stauffer, endemic to S.W. Western Australia.

Viscaceae Batsch

  1. Arceuthobium M. Bieb. 29 species, North and Central America, Asia, Africa.
  2. Dendrophthora Eichl. 125 species, Caribbean, Mexico, S. America.
  3. Ginalloa Korth. 9 species of Indomalysia.
  4. Korthalsella Tiegh. 30 species of the N tropics, Africa, Madagascar, Mascarenes, Himalayas to Japan, Australia, N. Zealand (oceanic distribution).
  5. Notothixos Oliv. 8 species from Sri Lanka to SE Asia, Australia.
  6. Phoradendron Nutt. ca. 247 species of the New World tropics.
  7. Viscum L. 130 species of temperate and tropical Old World.

Mystropetalaceae Hook. f.

Based on morphological features, this family has been treated as separate from Balanophoraceae by Hooker f. and Takhtajan (1997).  Nickrent et al. (2005) first showed via molecular phylogenetic analyses that this family is related to Santalales. That relationship, and its separate origin from Balanophoraceae, is supported by molecular data (see Su and Hu 2008, Su et al. 2015).

1. Dactylanthus Hook f. 1 species, D. taylori Hook. f. of New Zealand.
2. Hachettea Baillon. 1 species, H. autro-caledonica Baill. of New Caledonia.
3. Mystropetalon Harvey. 2 species of SW Cape area, S. Africa.

Balanophoraceae L. C. Richard & A. Richard

Treated in its own order, Balanophorales Dumort. by Takhtajan (1997) who then recognized the following segregate families: Dactylanthaceae Takhtajan, Helosidaceae Bromhead, Langsdorffiaceae van Tieghem, Lophophytaceae Horaninow, Mystropetalaceae Hooker, Sarcophytaceae A. Kerner, Scybaliaceae A. Kerner. Nickrent et al. (2005) first showed via molecular phylogenetic analyses that this family is related to Santalales. That relationship has now been supported by additional independent data (see Su and Hu 2008, Su et al. 2015).

1. Balanophora Forster & G. Forster 15 species in Old World tropics.
2. Chlamydophytum Mildbr. 1 species, C. aphyllum Mildbr. of tropical Africa.
3. Corynaea Hook f. 1 - 2 species of tropical American montane forests.
4. Ditepalanthus Fagerl. 1 species, D. afzelii Fagerlind, of Madagascar.
5. Exorhopala Steenis. 1 species, E. ruficeps (Ridl.) Steen. of Malay Peninsula. [syn. of Helosis acc. to Eberwein & Weber 2004, but molecular data confirming this are lacking].
6. Helosis Rich. 2 species, H. cayennensis (Swartz) Spreng. of tropical America and H. antillensis of the Caribbean.
7. Langsdorffia C. Martius. 3 species of Madagascar, New Guinea, tropical America.
8. Lathrophytum Eichler. 1 species, L. peckolti Eichl., of Brazil (nr. Rio de Janero).
9. Lophophytum Schott & Endl. 3 species in warm S. America.
10. Ombrophytum Poeppig ex Endl. 4 species of warm S. America, Galápagos.
11. Rhopalocnemis Junghuhn. 1 species, R. phalloides Jungh. of Indomalaysia. 
12. Sarcophyte Sparrman. 2 species of tropical and SE Africa.
13. Scybalium Schott. & Endl. 4 species of tropical America.
14. Thonningia Vahl. 1 species, T. sanguinea Vahl. of tropical Africa.

Saxifragales Bercht. & J. Presl.

Cynomoriaceae Lindley

1. Cynomorium L. 2 species of Europe, Mediterranean and Central Asia.

Zygophyllales Chalk

The APG2 classification considered Krameriaceae as an acceptable, monophyletic alternative to Zygophyllaceae R. Br. This "family" is unresolved at the base of the eurosid I clade.

Krameriaceae Dumortier

1. Krameria L. 18 species from S and W U.S. to Argentina and Chile.

Malpighiales C. Martius

Rafflesiaceae Dumortier

1. Rafflesia R.Brown. Approx. 15 species of W. Malaysia.
2. Rhizanthes Dumort. 2 species of W. Malaysia.
3. Sapria Griffith. 2 species from Assam to SE Asia (Thailand).

Malvales Dumort.

Cytinaceae A. Rich.

1. Bdallophytum Eichler. 3 species in Mexico, Central America.
2. Cytinus L. 6-8 species of Europe, Asia, Mediterranean, S. Africa, Madagascar.

Cucurbitales Dumort.

Apodanthaceae Takhtajan

  1. Apodanthes Poit. 7 species in tropical S. America.
  2. Pilostyles Guillemin. Approx. 14 species of U.S., Mexico, Central America, and S. America, SW Australia, tropical Africa.
  3. Berlinanche (Harms) Vatt. 2 species of tropical east Africa (B. aethiopica (Welw.) Vatt. and B. holtzii (Engl.) Vatt.

Ericales Dumort.

Mitrastemonaceae Makino (= Mitrastemmataceae)

  1. Mitrastema. 2 species (disjunct), Borneo/Sumatra, Indochina, Japan and Mexico, Central America.

Boraginales Dumort.


1. Lennoa Llave & Lex. 2 species of C. Mexico, Colombia and Venezuela.
2. Pholisma Nutt. ex Hook. (including Ammobroma Torrey). 3 species of S. California and Baja California.

Solanales Dumort

Convolvulaceae Dumortier

1. Cuscuta L. Ca. 200 species, cosmopolitan in distribution.

Lamiales Bromhead

Orobanchaceae Vent.

This list was compiled by first downloading the genera of Scrophulariaceae from a list made available at the time from Kew "Vascular Plant Families and Genera". Those taxa known (or suspected) to be parasitic were identified by Kim Steiner. Many thanks Kim! Also, James A. Wood (Royal Botanic Gardens Kew), Anne Ronse (Nat. Bot. Garden, Belgium), and Kerry Barringer (Brooklyn Botanic Garden) helped identify some additional parasites from a longer list of uncertain taxa previously posted on the web. Information on the numbers of species and distributions came mainly from Mabberley (1997, 2008 - The Plant-book, Cambridge University Press). More recently the list has been modified using information from numerous molecular phylogenetic studies. A particularly useful review is given in Schneeweiss (2013, Chapter 14 in Parasitic Orobanchaceae: Parasitic Mechanisms and Control Strategies, Springer-Verlag, Berlin). Several genera have been split from Orobanche (e.g. Aphyllon, Myzorrhiza, Phelipanche) based on Holub (1977, 1990), Teryokhin et al. (1993), Carlón et al. (2005), Schneeweiss et al. (2004) and Park et al. (2008). See also the Index of Orobanchaceae (Pedraja, Moral, Carlón, Piwowarczyk, Laínz & Schneeweiss) HERE.

The list contains 99 genera (ca. 2100 species) of parasitic plants, many of which were traditionally classified as hemiparasitic Scrophulariaceae. 32 of these genera are monospecific. 20 genera are holoparasites and are marked with an asterisk; the remainder are hemiparasites. Striga gesnerioides and Alectra orobanchoides are (or are nearly) holoparasitic.

Non-Parasitic Orobanchaceae (sister to the parasitic clade)

  1. Lindenbergia. Ca. 7 species of Asia.
  2. Rehmannia Libosch. ex Fisch. & C.A.Mey. 6 species of eastern Asia.
  3. Triaenophora Soler. 2-3 species of northeastern Asia.
Parasitic Orobanchaceae. * = holoparasites. The remainder are hemiparasites.
  1. *Aeginetia L. 8 species of Indomalaysia.
  2. Agalinis Raf. (including Tomanthera Raf. and possibly Virgularia Ruiz & Pav.). 62 species of temperate and tropical America.
  3. Alectra Thunb. (including Pseudorobanche Rouy. ). 33 species of Africa and Asia.
  4. Anisantherina Pennell. 1 species, A. hispidula Pennell, of northern South America and the Caribbean.
  5. *Aphyllon Mitch. [syn. Orobanche sect. Gymnocaulis]. 20 species of the New World.
  6. Asepalum Marais. 1 species, Asepalum eriantherum (Vatke) Marais, of NE and E Africa.
  7. Aureolaria Raf. 8 species of E. U.S. and Mexico.
  8. Bardotia Eb. Fisch., Schäferh. & Kai Müll. 1 species, B. ankaranensis Eb. Fisch., Schäferh. & Kai Müll., of Madagascar.
  9. Bartsia L. 1 species B. alpina of Arctic-alpine Europe and northeastern North America.
  10. Baumia Engl. & Gilg. 1 species, B. angolensis Engl. & Gilg, from Angola.
  11. Bellardia All. 2 species, B. trixago (L.) All and B. viscosa (L.) Fisch. & C.A.Mey.
  12. *Boschniakia C. Meyer ex Bong. 2 species of Himalayas to Taiwan, Japan, Arctic Asia, Alaska, Canada.
  13. *Boulardia F.W. Schultz. 1 species, B. latisquama F.W. Schultz, of W Europe.
  14. Brachystigma Pennell. 1 species, B. wrightii (A.Gray) Pennell, of SW US and Mexico.
  15. Brandisia Hook. f. and Thompson. 11 species of Myanmar and China.
  16. Buchnera L. 130 species of warm, temperate regions (16 in New World).
  17. Bungea C.A.Mey. 2 species, SW and central Asia, China.
  18. Buttonia Benth. 3 species of tropical and southern Africa.
  19. Castilleja Mutis ex L. f. ca. 200 species of North and Central America, Andean S. America, and Eurasia. [Includes Clevelandia Greene, Ophiocephalus Wiggins, Gentra Breedlove & Heckard, Oncorhynchus Lehm., Euchroma Nutt.]. 
  20. Centranthera R.Br. (including Razumovia Spreng.). 9 species of China to Australia.
  21. Chloropyron Behr. 4 species of western U.S. A segregate of Cordylanthus (see Tank et al. 2009).
  22. *Christisonia Gardner (including Campbellia Wight). 20 species of SW China, SE Asia, Indomalaysia.
  23. *Cistanche Hoffsgg. & Link. 18 species of Mediterranean, N. Africa to W. China.
  24. *Conopholis Wallroth. 3 species of North and Central America.
  25. Cordylanthus Nutt. ex Benth. (including Adenostegia Benth.). 17 species of western North America.
  26. Cyclocheilon Oliv. 3 species of NE Africa.
  27. Cycnium E. Meyer ex Benth. (including Cycniopsis Engl.) 21 species of warm Africa.
  28. Cymbaria L. 5 species of Europe and Central and Eastern Asia.
  29. Dasistoma Raf. 1 species, D. macrophylla Raf., of midwestern USA.
  30. Dicranostegia (A. Gray) Pennell. 1 species, D. orcuttiana (A.Gray) Pennell of California USA and Baja California (Mexico). A segregate of Cordylanthus (see Tank et al. 2009).
  31. *Diphelypaea Nicolson (including Phelypaea Tournef.). 3 species of the Mediterranean region.
  32. *Epifagus Nutt. 1 species of E. North America.
  33. *Eremitilla Yatsk. & Contreras. 1 species, E. mexicana Yatsk. & J.L.Contr., of Guerrero, Mexico.
  34. Escobedia Ruiz & Pav. 7 species of tropical America.
  35. Esterhazya J.C.Mikan. 6 species of Bolivia and Brazil.
  36. Euphrasia L. Ca. 260 species (with many microspecies) of Europe, Asia, Australia, North and South America.
  37. Gerardiina Engl. 2 species of tropical and South Africa.
  38. Ghikaea Volkens & Schweinf. 1 species, G. speciosa Schweinf. & Volkens ex Pilg., of NE Africa.
  39. *Gleadovia Gamble & Prain. 6 species of W. Himalayas and W. China.
  40. Graderia Benth. (including Bopusia C. Presl.). 4 species of Africa and Socotra.
  41. *Harveya Hook. (including Parastriga Mildbr.). Ca. 23 species of tropical and S. Africa, Mascarenes.
  42. Hedbergia Molau. 3 species of tropical Africa.
  43. Hiernia S. Moore. 1 species, H. angolensis S. Moore, from southern Africa.
  44. *Hyobanche L. 10 species of South Africa.
  45. Kopsiopsis (G. Beck) G. Beck.  2 species of western North America.
  46. Lamourouxia Kunth. 26 species of Mexico to Peru.
  47. *Lathraea L. 4 species of Eurasia.
  48. Leptorhabdos Schrenk. 1 species, L. parviflora Benth., from Caucasus and Iran to central Asia and Himalaya.
  49. Leucosalpa Scott-Elliot. 3 species of Madagascar.
  50. Macranthera Nutt. ex Benth. 1 species, M. flammea (Bartr.) Pennell, of the southeastern USA.
  51. Magdalenaea Brade. 1 species, M. limae Brade, of southeastern Brazil.
  52. *Mannagettaea H. Sm. 2 species of W. China to E. Siberia.
  53. Melampyrum L. 21 species of N temperate regions.
  54. Melasma P. Bergius. 12 species of tropical Africa and America [not monophyletic].
  55. Micrargeria Benth. 4 species of tropical Africa and India.
  56. Micrargeriella R.E.Fr. 1 species, M. aphylla R.E.Fr., of tropical east Africa.
  57. Monochasma Maxim. ex Franch. & Sav. 3 species of eastern Asia.
  58. *Myzorrhiza Philippi. [syn. Orobanche sect. Myzorrhiza]. 1 species, M. chilensis, New World.
  59.  Neobartsia Uribe-Convers & Tank. 47 species of South America.
  60. Nesogenes A. DC. 9 species of Tanzania, Madagascar, Indian and Pacific Ocean.
  61. Nothobartsia (Brot.) Bolliger & Molau. 2 Mediterranean species.
  62. Nothochilus Radlk. 1 species, N. coccineus, of Brazil.
  63. Odontitella Rothm. 1 species, O. virgata (Link) Rothm. of the Iberian peninsula.
  64. Odontites Ludw. (including Bartsiella Bollinger, Bornmuellerantha Rothm., Macrosyringion Rothm., Orthantha (Benth.) Wettst.; Orthanthella Rauschert – see Pinto et al. 2017). 31 species of temperate Eurasia, Mediterranean, and Macronesia.
  65. Omphalotrix Maxim. 1 species, O. longipes Maxim., of northeastern Asia.
  66. *Orobanche L. (including Platypholis Maxim). 117 species of northern hemisphere.
  67. Orthocarpus Nutt. 15 species of W. North America.
  68. Parentucellia Viv. 1 species, P. latifolia Caruel, of Europe, Asia, Macronesia; introduced to Australia, Chile (after Uribe-Convers & Tank 2016).
  69. Pedicularis L. Ca. 600 species of N. hemisphere, especially of central and eastern Asia, Europe, one species in Andes.
  70. Petitmenginia Bonati. 3 species of southern China and southeastern Asia.
  71. *Phacellanthus Siebold & Zucc. (including Tienmuia Hu). 1 species, P. tubiflorus Siebold & Zucc., of E. Asia [Considered part of Orobanche by Fu et al. (2017), which it is sister to].
  72. *Phelipanche Pomel [syn. Orobanche sect. Trionychon; includes Phelypaea L.]. 62 species of Old World (many species previously in Orobanche).
  73. Phtheirospermum Bunge ex Fisch. & C. A. Mey. 1 species, P. japonicum (Thunb.) Kanitz of eastern Asia. See Pinto et al. 2017.
  74. Physocalyx Pohl. 6 species of Brazil.
  75. Pseudobartsia D. Y. Hong. 2 species of China.
  76. Pseudomelasma (Baker) Eb. Fisch. 1 species, P. pedicularioides, of Madagascar.
  77. Pseudosopubia Engl. Ca. 5 species of tropical Africa.
  78. Pseudostriga Bonati. 1 species, P. cambodiana Bonati, of southeast Asia.
  79. Pterygiella Oliv. 7 species of China.
  80. Radamaea Benth. 3 species of Madagascar.
  81. Rhamphicarpa Benth. 21 species of tropical and south Africa, India, tropical Australia (includes a number of Cycnium species).
  82. Rhaphispermum Benth. 1 species, R. gerardioides Benth., of Madagascar.
  83. Rhinanthus L. 47 species of N. hemisphere.
  84. Rhynchocorys Griseb. 8 species of southern Europe to Iran.
  85. Schwalbea L. 1 species, S. americana L., of E. North America.
  86. Seymeria Pursh. 24 species of southern North America and Mexico.
  87. Seymeriopsis Tzvelev. 1 species, S. bissei Tzvelev, of Asia.
  88. Sieversandreas Eb. Fisch. 1 species, S. madagascarianus Eb. Fisch., Madagascar.
  89. Silviella Pennell (including Silvia Benth.). 2 species of Mexico.
  90. Siphonostegia Benth. 4 species of eastern Mediterranean and eastern Asia. Closely related to Schwalbea which Schneeweiss suggests merging. May contain Lesquereuxia Boiss. & Reut.
  91. Sopubia. Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don. 23 spp. Indomalaysis to trop. & S. Africa. Including Parasopubia H.-P.Hofm. & Eb.Fisch. (but P. delphinifolia is accepted on Plant List).
  92. Striga Lour. (including Cycniopsis Engl.). 33 species of tropical Old World to S. Africa.
  93. Tetraspidium Baker. 1 species, T. laxiflorum Baker, of Madagascar.
  94. Thunbergianthus Engl. 2 species:, T. quintasii Engl., of São Tomé (west Africa) and T. ruwenzoriensis R.D.Good, of tropical east Africa.
  95. Tozzia L. 1 species, T. alpina L., of the Alps, Carpathians.
  96. Triphysaria Fischer & C. Meyer (formerly Orthocarpus). 5 species of California, 1 extending to British Columbia.
  97. Vellosiella Baill. 2 species of Brazil.
  98. Xizangia D.Y.Hong. 1 species, X. serrata D.Y.Hong, of China.
  99. Xylocalyx Balf. f. 4-5 species of Somalia.


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