Parasitic Plant Classification

This list gives the author's current concept of phylogenetic relationships among all parasitic flowering plants. The highlighted family names link to the main index page for that family. These pages contain descriptions, distribution maps, photographs, references, etc. These 12 orders represent the 12 independent evolutionary events that gave rise to parasitic angiosperms:

1. Boraginales (Lennoaceae)
2. Cucurbitales (Apodanthaceae)
3. Ericales (Mitrastemonaceae)
4. Lamiales (Orobanchaceae)
5. Laurales (Lauraceae - Cassytha)
6. Malpighiales (Rafflesiaceae)
7. Malvales (Cytinaceae)
8. Piperales (Hydnoraceae)
9. Santalales (20 families, including Balanophoraceae)
10. Saxifragales (Cynomoriaceae)
11. Solanales (Convolvulaceae - Cuscuta)
12. Zygophyllales (Krameriaceae)

Laurales Perleb

Lauraceae A. L. de Jussieu (1789)

  1. Cassytha L. 16 species of Old and New World tropics.


Hydnoraceae C. A. Agardh. (1821)

1. Hydnora Thunb. 12-15 species, tropical and S. Africa, Madagasgar.
2. Prosopanche Bary. 3 species of Argentina, Paraguay, Costa Rica.

Santalales Dumort

Olacaceae s. lat. Molecular phylogenetic work by Malécot and Nickrent (2008) provided data supporting the existence of several clades in what is traditionally called "Olacaceae".  These clades have been recognized at the rank of family in Nickrent et al. (2010).  At present it is not clear whether Brachynema Bentham (2 species, B. axillare R. Duno & P.E. Berry and B. ramiflorum Benth., of Brazil) resides within Santalales.

Erythropalaceae Planch ex Miquel (1856)

1. Erythropalum Blume. 1 species, E. scandens Blume, in Indomalaysia.
2. Heisteria Jacq. 34 species of tropical America, three species in Africa.
3. Maburea Maas. 1 species M. trinervis of Guyana.

Strombosiaceae Tiegh. (1899)

4. Diogoa Exell & Mendonça. 1 species, D. zenkeri Engl. of tropical Africa.
5. Engomegoma Breteler. 1 species of Gabon.
6. Scorodocarpus Becc. 1 species, S. borneensis (Baillon) Becc., in Malaysia.
7. Strombosia Blume. 10  inspecies Old World tropics, 3 in tropical Asia, 6 in tropical Africa.
8. Strombosiopsis Engl. 3 species of tropical Africa.
9. Tetrastylidium Engl. 2 species of South America.

Ximeniaceae Horan (1834)

1. Curupira Black. 1 species, C. tefeenis Black, of amazonian Brazil.
2. Douradoa Sleumer. 1 species, D. consimilis Sleumer, of Brazil (Amapa, Para).
3. Malania Chun & Lee. 1 species, M. oleifera Chun & Lee, of W. Kwangsi & E. Yunnan provinces of China.
4. Ximenia L. 10 species in Old and New World tropics.

Coulaceae Tiegh. (1897)

1. Coula Baillon. 1 species, C. edulis Baillon, of tropical W. Africa.
2. Minquartia Aublet. 1 species, M. guianensis Aubl., of tropical America.
3. Ochanostachys Masters. 1 species, O. amentacea Masters, in W. Malaysia.

Aptandraceae Miers (1853)

1. Anacolosa (Blume) Blume. 16 species in the Old World tropics.
2. Aptandra Miers. 4 species of tropical America and Africa.
3. Cathedra Miers. 5 species of Brazil.
4. Chaunochiton Benth. 3 species, tropical America.
5. Harmandia Baillon. 1 species, H. mekongensis Pierre ex Baillon, in SE Asia and Malaysia.
6. Hondurodendron Ulloa, Nickrent, Whitefoord, & Kelly.  1 species, H. urceolatum, from Honduras.
7. Ongokea Pierre. 1 species, O. gore (Hua) Pierre in tropical W. Africa.
8. Phanerodiscus Cavaco. 3 species, Madagascar.

Octoknemaceae Soler (1908)

1. Octoknema Pierre. 14 species in tropical Africa.

Olacaceae s. str. R. Brown (1818)

1. Dulacia Sleumer [= Liriosma]. 13 species of South America.
2. Olax L. 42 species in Old World tropics and S. Africa.
3. Ptychopetalum Benth. 5 species, 2 in tropical S. America, 2-3 species in tropical W and Central Africa.

Schoepfiaceae Blume (1850)

Molecular data (Nickrent 1996, 1998, Vidal-Russel and Nickrent 2008) all indicate that these genera are related to one another and distinct from Olacaceae and Santalaceae.

  1. Arjona Cav. 8 species of tropical & temperate S. America.
  2. Quinchamalium Molina. 25 species of Andean S. America.
  3. Schoepfia Schreber. 25 species in tropical America and Asia.

Misodendraceae J. Agardh (1858)

1. Misodendrum Banks ex DC. 8 species of S. America, mainly south of 33 degrees.

Loranthaceae Juss. (1808)

Molecular phylogenetic work by Vidal-Russell and Nickrent (2008) provided evidence for several clades within Loranthaceae.  The family was formally reclassified in Nickrent et al. (2010) and that classification is given below.  Base chromosome numbers for the tribes and subtribes are given.

Tribe Nuytsieae Tiegh. (X = 12)
  1. Nuytsia R. Brown ex G. Don f. 1 species, N. floribunda (Labill.) R. Br. ex G. Don f., of W. Australia.
Tribe Gaiadendreae Tiegh. (X = 12)
  1. Atkinsonia F. Muell. 1 species, A. ligustrina F. Muell., of the Blue Mts., SE Australia.
  2. Gaiadendron G. Don. 1 species, G. punctatum (R. & P.) G. Don., of the N. Andes to Costa Rica.
Tribe Elytrantheae Engl. (X = 12)
  1. Alepis Tiegh. 1 species, A. flavida Hook. f) Tiegh., of N. Zealand.
  2. Amylotheca Tiegh. 4 species of E Australia, New Guinea, Melanesia.
  3. Cyne Danser. 6 species of the Philippines, Moluccas and New Guinea. Includes Tetradyas Danser. (T. perfoliata Dans.) of New Guinea.
  4. Decaisnina Tiegh. 25 species of Malesia, Philippines to tropical Australia and Tahiti.
  5. Elytranthe Blume. 10 species of SE Asia, Malaysia.
  6. Lampas Danser. 1 species, L. elmeri Danser, of N. Borneo.
  7. Lepeostegeres Blume. 9 species of Malaya, Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes, Philippines east to New Guinea.
  8. Lepidaria Tiegh. 14 species of W. Malaysia.
  9. Loxanthera Blume 1 species, L. speciosa Blume, of Malaya, Sumatra, Java, Borneo.
  10. Lysiana Tiegh. 8 species from Australia.
  11. Macrosolen (Blume) Reichb. 25-50 species of Sri Lanka to SE Asia to New Guinea.
  12. Peraxilla Tiegh. 2 species of N. Zealand.
  13. Trilepidea Tiegh. 1 species, T. adamsii (Cheesm.) Tiegh., of New Zealand (extinct).
  14. Thaumasianthes Danser. 1 species Philippines (extinct?).

Tribe Psittacantheae Horan. (X = 12, 8)

Subtribe Tupeinae Nickrent & Vidal-Russell (X = 12)
  1. Tupeia Cham. & Schlechtd. 1 species, T. antarctica (Forst. f) Chamb. & Schlecht., of New Zealand.
Subtribe Notantherinae Nickrent & Vidal-Russell (X = 12)
  1. Desmaria Tiegh. 1 species, D. mutabilis (Poepp. & Endl.) Tiegh. ex Jacks, of S. Chile.
  2. Notanthera (DC) G. Don. f. 1 species, N. heterophylla (R. & P) G. Don, of temperate S. America.
Subtribe Ligarinae Nickrent & Vidal-Russell (X = 10, 12)
  1. Ligaria Tiegh. 2 species of arid and subtemperate S. America.
  2. Tristerix Mart. 11 species of S. temperate and high Andean S. America.
Subtribe Psittacanthinae Engl. (X = 8)
    1. Aetanthus (Eichl.) Engl. 11 species of the northern Andes.
    2. Cladocolea Tiegh. 26 species of Mexico, Central and South America.
    3. Dendropemon (Blume) Reichb. 31 species of the Caribbean.
    4. Oryctanthus Eichl. 15 species of tropical America.
    5. Oryctina Tiegh. (including Maracanthus). 10 species of Western Venezuela, Guyana, Brazil.
    6. Panamanthus Kuijt. 1 species [P. panamensis (Rizz.) Kuijt] of Panama.
    7. Passovia H. Karst. 21 species of tropical America.
    8. Peristethium Tiegh. 15 species of tropical America.
    9. Phthirusa Mart. (including Ixocactus). 7 (or more?) species of Central and South America, Caribbean.
    10. Psittacanthus Mart. ca. 119 species of Mexico, Central and South America.
    11. Struthanthus Mart. ca. 50 species of tropical America.
    12. Tripodanthus (Eichl.) Tiegh. 2-3 species of sub-temperate and high Andean S. America.
Tribe Lorantheae Rchb. 
Subtribe Ileostylinae Nickrent & Vidal-Russell (X = 11)
  1. Ileostylus Tiegh. 1 species, I. micranthus (Hook. f.) Tiegh., of N. Zealand.
  2. Muellerina Tiegh. 4 species endemic to E. Australia.
Subtribe Loranthinae Engl. (X = 9)
  1. Cecarria Barlow. 1 species, C. obtusifolia (Merr.) Barlow of New Guinea, Philippines, New Britain, Solomon Islands.
  2. Loranthus Jacq. 8-10 species of Europe, Asia, Nepal, India (Assam), Burma and S. China to Indochina, Taiwan, Sumatra.
Subtribe Amyeminae Nickrent & Vidal-Russell (X = 9)
  1. Amyema Tiegh. 107 species of the Malay penninsula, Australia, W. Pacific.
  2. Baratranthus Miq. [= Barathranthus Dans.] 3 species of Sri Lanka and Malaysia.
  3. Benthamina Tiegh. 1 species endemic to Australia.
  4. Dactyliophora Tiegh. 3 species of Papuasia, N. Queensland Australia.
  5. Diplatia Tiegh. 3 species of tropical Australia.
  6. Distrianthes Danser. 1 species, D. moliflora (Krause) Dans., of New Guinea.
  7. Helicanthes Danser. 1 species, H. elasticus (Desr.) Dans., of India.
  8. Papuanthes Danser. 1 species, P. albertisii Dans., of New Guinea.
  9. Sogerianthe Danser. 4 species of E. New Guinea to the Solomon Islands.
Subtribe Scurrulinae Nickrent & Vidal-Russell (X = 9)
  1. Scurrula L. 43 species of SE Asia and Malaysia.
  2. Taxillus Tiegh. 60-85 species of tropical Asia (India and Sri Lanka to China, Japan, Philippines, Borneo) and Africa (Kenya coast).
Subtribe Dendrophthoinae Nickrent & Vidal-Russell (X = 9)
  1. Dendrophthoe Mart. 30-60 species from India to SE Asia, Australia, and the Philippines with its center of diversity in W. Malesia.
  2. Helixanthera Lour. 55 species of tropical Africa, Asia, Malesia.
  3. Tolypanthus Blume. 7 species from E India to SE China.
  4. Trithecanthera Tiegh. 5 species W. Malaysia (including Kingella scortenchinii).
Subtribe Emelianthinae Nickrent & Vidal-Russell (X = 9)
  1. Emelianthe Danser. 2 species of tropical Africa.
  2. Erianthemum Tiegh. 16 species of E and S Africa.
  3. Globimetula Tiegh. 13 species of tropical Africa.
  4. Moquiniella Balle. 1 species, M. rubra (Spreng. f.) Balle, of Namibia and Cape Prov. of S. Africa.
  5. Oliverella Tiegh. 3 species of E and S central Africa.
  6. Phragmanthera Tiegh. 35 species of tropical Africa and Arabia.
  7. Spragueanella Balle. 2 species in E and S central Africa.
Subtribe Tapinanthinae Nickrent & Vidal-Russell (X = 9)
  1. Actinanthella Balle. 2 species of SE and S Africa.
  2. Agelanthus Tiegh. 62 species of Africa and the Arabian peninsula.
  3. Bakerella Tiegh. 16 species of Madagascar.
  4. Berhautia Balle. 1 species, B. senegalensis Balle of Senegal and Gambia.
  5. Englerina Tiegh. 26 species in tropical Africa.
  6. Oedina Tiegh. 4 species of E Africa.
  7. Oncella Tiegh. 4 species of E Africa.
  8. Oncocalyx Tiegh. (including Tieghemia) 12 species of E and S Africa to Arabia.
  9. Pedistylis Wiens. 1 species, P. galpinii (Schinz ex Sprague) Wiens, of S. Africa.
  10. Plicosepalus Tiegh. 12 species of Middle East and Arabia, to E Africa, Angola and S. Africa.
  11. Septulina Tiegh. 2 species of S. Africa.
  12. Socratina S. Balle. 2 species of Madagasgar.
  13. Tapinanthus (Blume) Reichb. 30 species of tropical and S Africa.
  14. Vanwykia Wiens. 1 species of S Africa.

Opiliaceae Valeton (1886)

  1. Agonandra Miers ex Benth. 10 species of Mexico, Central and tropical S. America.
  2. Anthobolus R. Brown. 3 species of Australia.
  3. Cansjera Juss. 3 species of India and Ceylon to S. China, New Guinea and N. Australia.
  4. Champereia Griffith. 1 variable species, C. manillana (Blume) Merr., of Andamans, Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Taiwan; in Malesia widely distributed from Sumatra to W. New Guinea.
  5. Gjellerupia Lauterb. 1 species, G. papuana Laut., of New Guinea.
  6. Lepionurus Blume. 1 species, L. sylvestris Blume, from Nepal and Assam to western Malesia.
  7. Melientha Pierre. 1 species, M. suavis Pierre, of SE Asia to the Philippines.
  8. Opilia Roxb. 2 species of Africa, Asia, Indonesia, Australia.
  9. Pentarhopalopilia Hiepko. 4 species of Africa and Madagascar.
  10. Rhopalopilia Pierre. 3 species of tropical Africa.
  11. Urobotrya Stapf. 7 species of Africa and SE Asia.

Santalaceae R. Brown s. lat. 

Molecular phylogenetic work by Der and Nickrent (2008) highlighted the existence of several clades in what is traditionally called "Santalaceae".  These clades were described at the rank of family in Nickrent et al. (2010). The genus Anthobolus has been moved to Opiliaceae and Arjona and Quinchamalium to Schoepfiaceae.

Comandraceae Nickrent & Der (2010)

  1. Comandra Nutt. 1 species, C. umbellata (L.) Nutt. of North America, Europe and the Mediterranean. 
  2. Geocaulon Fern. 1 species: G. lividum (Rich.) Fern. of Alaska and Canada.

Thesiaceae Vest (1818)

  1. Buckleya Torrey. 5 species, E. U.S. and E. Asia.
  2. Kunkeliella Stearn. 4 species, Canary Islands.
  3. Osyridicarpos A. DC. 1 species: O. schimperianus (Hochst.) A. DC of Africa.
  4. Thesidium Sond. 9 species of S. Africa.
  5. Thesium L. [includes Austroamericium Hendrych and Chrysothesium Hendrych]. 340 species in Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia, S. America. Two species introduced into North America (Musselman and Haynes, 1996).

Cervantesiaceae Nickrent & Der (2010)

  1. Acanthosyris (Eichl.) Griseb. 6 species from temperate S. America.
  2. Cervantesia Ruiz & Pavon. 2 species of Andean S. America.
  3. Jodina Hook. & Arn. ex Meissner. 1 species of S. Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina.
  4. Okoubaka Pellegrin & Normand. 2 species of tropical Africa.
  5. Pilgerina Rogers, Nickrent, & Malécot. 1 species of Madagascar.
  6. Pyrularia Michx. 2 species, 1 of SE US, 1 of China, Himalayas.
  7. Scleropyrum Arnott. [includes Scleromelum K.Schum. & Lauterb.] 4 species of Malesia, New Guinea, S.E. Asia, India.
  8. Staufferia Rogers, Nickrent, & Malécot. 1 species of Madagascar.

Nanodeaceae Nickrent & Der (2010)

  1. Mida Cunn. ex Endl. 1 species, M. salicifolia A. Cunn. disjunct from N. Zealand to Juan Fernandez Islands.
  2. Nanodea Banks ex Gaertner f. 1 species: N. muscosa Gaertn. f. of temperate S. America (Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego, Falkland Islands).

Santalaceae R. Br. (1810), emend. (s. str.)

  1. Antidaphne Poeppig & Endlicher. 9 species S. America, Caribbean, Mexico.
  2. Colpoon P. Bergius [including Fusanus L.]. 2 species of S. Africa.
  3. Eubrachion Hooker f. 2 species from Jamaica, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Venezuela.
  4. Exocarpos Labill. [including Elaphanthera N.Halle] 26 species of SE Asia, Malaysia to Hawaii.
  5. Lepidoceras Hooker f. 2 species from Chile.
  6. Myoschilos Ruiz & Pav. 1 species, Argentina and Chile.
  7. Nestronia Raf. [= Darbya A.Gray] 1 species, N. umbellula Raf. of E. U.S.
  8. Omphacomeria (Endl.) A. DC. 1 species: O. acerba (R. Br.) A. DC of SE Australia.
  9. Osyris L. 4-5 species of Europe, Mediterranean, Africa to India.
  10. Rhoiacarpos A. DC. 1 species:R. capensis (Harv.) A. DC. of S. Africa.
  11. Santalum L. [including Eucarya T.L.Mitch, Fusanus R.Br. ] 16 species from Indomalaya to Australia, Hawaii.

Amphorogynaceae (Stauffer ex Stearn) Nickrent & Der, stat. nov.

  1. Amphorogyne Stauffer & Hürlimann. 3 species of New Caledonia.
  2. Choretrum R. Brown. 7 species in Australia.
  3. Daenikera Hürl & Stauffer. 1 species: D. corallina Hürlimann of New Caledonia.
  4. Dendromyza Danser (including Cladomyza Danser). ca. 20 species of SE Asia, Malaysia, Indonesia, New Guinea.
  5. Dendrotrophe Miq. [incuding Henslowia Blume]. 7 species from Himalayas to the Philippines and Malaysia, Indonesia.
  6. Dufrenoya Chatin. 13 species of Indonesia and Malaysia.
  7. Leptomeria R. Brown. 17 species of Australia.
  8. Phacellaria Benth. 6 species of E. India to S. China.
  9. Spirogardnera George. 1 species, S. rubescens Stauffer, endemic to S.W. Western Australia.

Viscaceae Batsch

  1. Arceuthobium M. Bieb. 29 species, North and Central America, Asia, Africa.
  2. Dendrophthora Eichl. 125 species, Caribbean, Mexico, S. America.
  3. Ginalloa Korth. 9 species of Indomalysia.
  4. Korthalsella Tiegh. 30 species of the N tropics, Africa, Madagascar, Mascarenes, Himalayas to Japan, Australia, N. Zealand (oceanic distribution).
  5. Notothixos Oliv. 8 species from Sri Lanka to SE Asia, Australia.
  6. Phoradendron Nutt. ca. 247 species of the New World tropics.
  7. Viscum L. 130 species of temperate and tropical Old World.

Balanophoraceae L. C. Richard & A. Richard

Treated in its own order, Balanophorales Dumort. by Takhtajan (1997) who then recognized the following segregate families: Dactylanthaceae Takhtajan, Helosidaceae Bromhead, Langsdorffiaceae van Tieghem, Lophophytaceae Horaninow, Mystropetalaceae Hooker, Sarcophytaceae A. Kerner, Scybaliaceae A. Kerner. Nickrent et al. (2005) first showed via molecular phylogenetic analyses that this family is related to Santalales. That relationship has now been supported by additional independent data (see Su and Hu 2008 abstract HERE).

1. Balanophora Forster & G. Forster 15 species in Old World tropics.
2. Chlamydophytum Mildbr. 1 species, C. aphyllum Mildbr. of tropical Africa.
3. Corynaea Hook f. 1 - 2 species of tropical American montane forests.
4. Dactylanthus Hook f. 1 species, D. taylori Hook. f. of New Zealand.
5. Ditepalanthus Fagerl. 1 species, D. afzelii Fagerlind, of Madagascar.
6. Exorhopala Steenis. 1 species, E. ruficeps (Ridl.) Steen. of Malay Peninsula. [syn. of Helosis acc. to Eberwein & Weber 2004, but molecular data confirming this are lacking].
7. Hachettea Baillon. 1 species, H. autro-caledonica Baill. of New Caledonia.
8. Helosis Rich. 1 species, H. cayennensis (Swartz) Spreng. of tropical America.
9. Langsdorffia C. Martius. 3 species of Madagascar, New Guinea, tropical America.
10. Lathrophytum Eichler. 1 species, L. peckolti Eichl., of Brazil (nr. Rio de Janero).
11. Lophophytum Schott & Endl. 3 species in warm S. America.
12. Mystropetalon Harvey. 2 species of SW Cape area, S. Africa.
13. Ombrophytum Poeppig ex Endl. 4 species of warm S. America, Galápagos.
14. Rhopalocnemis Junghuhn. 1 species, R. phalloides Jungh. of Indomalaysia. 
15. Sarcophyte Sparrman. 2 species of tropical and SE Africa.
16. Scybalium Schott. & Endl. 4 species of tropical America.
17. Thonningia Vahl. 1 species, T. sanguinea Vahl. of tropical Africa.

Saxifragales Bercht. & J. Presl.

Cynomoriaceae Lindley

1. Cynomorium L. 2 species of Europe, Mediterranean and Central Asia.

Zygophyllales Chalk

The APG2 classification considered Krameriaceae as an acceptable, monophyletic alternative to Zygophyllaceae R. Br. This "family" is unresolved at the base of the eurosid I clade.

Krameriaceae Dumortier

1. Krameria L. 18 species from S and W U.S. to Argentina and Chile.

Malpighiales C. Martius

Rafflesiaceae Dumortier

1. Rafflesia R.Brown. Approx. 15 species of W. Malaysia.
2. Rhizanthes Dumort. 2 species of W. Malaysia.
3. Sapria Griffith. 2 species from Assam to SE Asia (Thailand).

Malvales Dumort.

Cytinaceae A. Rich.

1. Bdallophytum Eichler. 3 species in Mexico, Central America.
2. Cytinus L. 6-8 species of Europe, Asia, Mediterranean, S. Africa, Madagascar.

Cucurbitales Dumort.

Apodanthaceae Takhtajan

  1. Apodanthes Poit. 7 species in tropical S. America.
  2. Pilostyles Guillemin. Approx. 14 species of U.S., Mexico, Central America, and S. America, SW Australia, tropical Africa.
  3. Berlinanche (Harms) Vatt. 2 species of tropical east Africa (B. aethiopica (Welw.) Vatt. and B. holtzii (Engl.) Vatt.

Ericales Dumort.

Mitrastemonaceae Makino (= Mitrastemmataceae)

  1. Mitrastema. 2 species (disjunct), Borneo/Sumatra, Indochina, Japan and Mexico, Central America.

Boraginales Dumort.

Lennoaceae is at the base of the Euasterid I clade in APG II and it was included in Boraginaceae. APGIII does not classify Boraginaceae in any order but is simply included among the Lamiids. The recent molecular work (complete chloroplast genome sequence analysis) of Moore et al. (2008) recognized Boraginales as a basal lamiid. More recently, Lennoaceae have been shown to be a component of a monophyletic Ehretiaceae (Gottschling et al. 2014. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 72: 1-6).

Lennoaceae Solms-Laubach (or Boraginacease Juss.)

1. Lennoa Llave & Lex. 2 species of C. Mexico, Colombia and Venezuela.
2. Pholisma Nutt. ex Hook. (including Ammobroma Torrey). 3 species of S. California and Baja California.

Solanales Dumort

Convolvulaceae Dumortier

1. Cuscuta L. Ca. 200 species, cosmopolitan in distribution.

Lamiales Bromhead

Orobanchaceae Vent.

This list was compiled by first downloading the genera of Scrophulariaceae from a list made available at the time from Kew "Vascular Plant Families and Genera". Those taxa known (or suspected) to be parasitic were identified by Kim Steiner. Many thanks Kim! Also, James A. Wood (Royal Botanic Gardens Kew), Anne Ronse (Nat. Bot. Garden, Belgium), and Kerry Barringer (Brooklyn Botanic Garden) helped identify some additional parasites from a longer list of uncertain taxa previously posted on the web. Information on the numbers of species and distributions came mainly from Mabberley (1997, 2008 - The Plant-book, Cambridge University Press). If you have additional information relating to the parasitic nature of the genera listed below, please let me (Dan Nickrent) know and I will make the update.

The list contains 90 genera (ca. 1800 species) of parasitic plants traditionally classified as hemiparasitic Scrophulariaceae (tribes Buchnereae and Rhinantheae) and Orobanchaceae. 24 of these genera are monospecific. 20 genera are holoparasites and are marked with an asterisk; the remainder are hemiparasites. This classification follows molecular phylogenetic evidence (e.g. Olmstead et al. 2001, Amer. J. Bot. 88: 348-361 and Oxelman et al. 2005 Taxon 54:411-425) as well as recent changes (synonymy) in Mabberley, 3rd. edition (2008). Orobanche has been split into four genera (Aphyllon, Myzorrhiza, Phelipanche and Orobanche) based on Holub (1977, 1990), Teryokhin et al. (1993), Carlón et al. (2005), Schneeweiss et al. (2004) and Park et al. (2008).

  1. *Aeginetia L. 3 species of Indomalaysia.
  2. Agalinis Raf. (including Anisantherina Pennell ). 40 species of tropical and temperate America.
  3. Alectra Thunb. (including Pseudorobanche Rouy. ). 40 species of Africa and Asia.
  4. *Aphyllon Mitch. [syn. Orobanche sect. Gymnocaulis]. New World.
  5. Asepalum Marais. 1 species of NE and E Africa.
  6. Aureolaria Raf. 11 species of E. U.S. and Mexico.
  7. Bartsia L. 60 species of north temperate regions, tropical mountains (including Bellardia All.).
  8. *Boschniakia C. Meyer ex Bong. 2 species of Himalayas to Taiwan, Japan, Arctic Asia, Alaska, Canada. [includes Xylanche Beck.].
  9. Brandisia Hook. f. and Thompson. 13 species of Myanmar and China.
  10. Buchnera L. ca. 100 species of warm, temperate regions (16 in New World).
  11. Bungea C.A.Mey. 2 species, SW and central Asia, China.
  12. Buttonia Benth. 3 species of tropical and southern Africa.
  13. Castilleja Mutis ex L. f. ca. 190 species of North and Central America, Andean S. America, and Eurasia. [Includes Clevelandia Greene, Ophiocephalus Wiggins, Gentra Breedlove & Heckard, Oncorhynchus Lehm., Euchroma Nutt.]. 
  14. Centranthera R.Br. (including Razumovia Spreng. ). 9 species of China to Australia.
  15. Chloropyron Behr. 4 species of western U.S. A segregate of Cordylanthus (see Tank et al. 2009).
  16. *Christisonia Gardner (including Campbellia Wight). 17 species of SW China, SE Asia, Indomalaysia.
  17. *Cistanche Hoffsgg. & Link. 16 species of Mediterranean, N. Africa to W. China.
  18. *Conopholis Wallroth. 2 species of North and Central America.
  19. Cordylanthus Nutt. ex Benth. (including Adenostegia Benth.). 13 species of western North America.
  20. Cyclocheilon Oliv. 3 species of NE Africa.
  21. Cycnium E. Meyer ex Benth. (including Cycniopsis Engl.) 18 of warm Africa.
  22. Cymbaria L. 4 species of Europe and Central and Eastern Asia.
  23. Dasistoma Raf. 1 species of E. North America (D. macrophylla Raf.).
  24. Dicranostegia (A. Gray) Pennell. 1 species of California USA and Baja California (Mexico). A segregate of Cordylanthus (see Tank et al. 2009).
  25. *Epifagus Nutt. 1 species of E. North America.
  26. *Eremitilla Yatsk. & Contreras. 1 species of Guerrero, Mexico (E. mexicana).
  27. Escobedia Ruiz & Pav. 6 species of tropical America.
  28. Esterhazya J.C.Mikan. 5 species of Bolivia and Brazil.
  29. Euphrasia L. Ca. 170 species (with many microspecies) of Eurasia.
  30. Gerardiina Engl. 2 species of tropical and South Africa.
  31. Ghikaea Volkens & Schweinf. 1 species of NE Africa.
  32. *Gleadovia Gamble & Prain. 6 species of W. Himalayas and W. China.
  33. Graderia Benth. (including Bopusia C.Presl.). 5 species of Africa and Socotra.
  34. *Harveya Hook. 40 species of tropical and S. Africa, Mascarenes.
  35. Hedbergia Molau (related to Bartsia). 1 species of tropical Africa [H. abyssinica (Benth.) Molau].
  36. *Hyobanche L. 7 species of S. Africa.
  37. *Kopsiopsis (G. Beck) G. Beck. 2 spp. W North America (formerly part of Boschniakia).
  38. Lamourouxia Kunth. 28 spp. Mexico to Peru.
  39. *Lathraea L. 7 species of Eurasia.
  40. Leptorhabdos Schrenk. 1 species from Caucasus and Iran to central Asia and Himalaya.
  41. Leucosalpa Scott-Elliot. 3 species of Madagascar.
  42. Lindenbergia Lehm. 15 spp. Himalays to tropical Asia and Africa. Nonparasitic but basal to Orobanchaceae.
  43. Macranthera Nutt. ex Benth. 1 species [M. flammea (Bartr.) Pennell] of the southeastern U.S.
  44. Magdalenaea Brade. 1 species of southeastern Brazil.
  45. *Mannagettaea H. Sm. 3 species of W. China to E. Siberia.
  46. Melampyrum L. 35 species of N temperate regions.
  47. Melasma P. Bergius. 20 species of tropical Africa and America.
  48. Micrargeria Benth. 4 species of tropical Africa and India.
  49. Micrargeriella R.E.Fr. 1 species of tropical east Africa.
  50. Monochasma Maxim. ex Franch. & Sav. 4 species of eastern Asia.
  51. *Myzorrhiza Philippi. [syn. Orobanche sect. Myzorrhiza]. New World.
  52. Nesogenes A. DC. 8 species of Tanzania, Madagascar, Indian and Pacific Ocean.
  53. Nothobartsia (Brot.) Bolliger & Molau. 1 species, N. aspera (Brot.) Bolliger & Molau, Mediterranean.
  54. Nothochilus Radlk. 1 species of Brazil.
  55. Odontites Ludw. (including Orthantha (Benth.) Wettst.; Orthanthella Rauschert). 30 species of western and southern Europe.
  56. Omphalotrix Maxim. 1 species of northeastern Asia.
  57. *Orobanche L. ca. 150 species of northern hemisphere. (This species count presently includes Aphyllon, Myzorrhiza, and Phelipanche)
  58. Orthocarpus Nutt. 9 species of W. North America.
  59. Parastriga Mildbr. 1 species of tropical Africa.
  60. Parentucellia Viv. 3 species of Europe, Mediterranean to southwest Asia [including Pseudobartsia D. Y. Hong].
  61. Pedicularis L. 500 or more species of N. hemisphere, esp. mts. of C. & E. Asia, Europe, one species in Andes.
  62. Petitmenginia Bonati. 2 species of southern China and southeastern Asia.
  63. *Phacellanthus Siebold & Zucc. 1 species of E. Asia [including Tienmuia Hu].
  64. *Phelypaea L. 4 species of Mediterranean region.
  65. *Phelipanche Pomel [syn. Orobanche sect. Trionychon]. Old World.
  66. Phtheirospermum Bunge ex Fisch. & C. A. Mey. (including Centrantheropsis Bonati ). 7 species of eastern Asia.
  67. Physocalyx Pohl. 2 species of Brazil.
  68. *Platypholis Maxim. 1 species of Bonin Island, Japan.
  69. Pseudomelasma (Baker) Eb. Fisch. 1 species, P. pedicularioides of Madagascar.
  70. Pseudosopubia Engl. 5 species of tropical Africa.
  71. Pseudostriga Bonati. 1 species of southeast Asia.
  72. Pterygiella Oliv. 4 species of China [including Xizangia D. Y. Hong].
  73. Radamaea Benth. 5 species of Madagascar.
  74. Rhamphicarpa Benth. 6 species of tropical and south Africa, India, tropical Australia.
  75. Rhaphispermum Benth. 1 species, R. gerardioides Benth., of Madagascar.
  76. Rhinanthus L. 45 species of N. hemisphere.
  77. Rhynchocorys Griseb. 6 species of southern Europe to Iran.
  78. Schwalbea L. 1 species (S. americana L.) of E. North America.
  79. Seymeria Pursh. 2 species of southern North America.
  80. Sieversandreas Eb. Fisch. 1 species, S. madagascarianus Eb. Fisch., Madagascar.
  81. Silviella Pennell (including Silvia Benth.). 2 species of Mexico.
  82. Siphonostegia Benth. (including Lesquereuxia Boiss. & Reut). 4 species of eastern Mediterranean and eastern Asia.
  83. Sopubia Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don. 41 spp. Indomalaysis to trop. & S. Africa.
  84. Striga Lour. Ca. 40 species of tropical Old World to S. Africa.
  85. Tetraspidium Baker. 1 species of Madagascar.
  86. Thunbergianthus Engl. 1 species of São Tomé (west Africa) and 1 species of tropical east Africa.
  87. Tozzia L. 1 species of the Alps, Carpathians (T. alpina L.)
  88. Triphysaria Fischer & C. Meyer (formerly Orthocarpus). 5 species California, 1 to British Columbia.
  89. Vellosiella Baill. 3 species of Brazil.
  90. Xylocalyx Balf. f. 5 species of Somalia.


Last updated: 23-Jul-13 / dln